31th March: IELTS11-test3-R2



D段:vertical movements; zooplankton/plankton;  by night/ by day= during the night/day, (Often used in simultaneous clauses for contrast.); aphids; de`plete sth; 

eg: By day, Mary worked in an office;by night, she took classes. Dave slept by day and worked by night.

 So can the movement of aphids when, having depleted the young leaves on one food plant, their offspring then fly onward to a different host plant, with no one aphid ever returning to where it started.

E段:intricate;  take off; appropriate VS appreciate;  migration-migrational; wildebeest牛羚; tender adj.v. , at a tender age/ at the tender age of ;

F段:detrimental impact; resemble v. VS assemble; antelope n.羚; `mountainous; New World, 美洲大陆, Old World, 欧洲国家; one population n.2 族群 a particular group of people or animals living in a particular area; range 牧场, summer range; in/within range of sth/ out of range of sth;  sagebrush, brush n.2 灌木丛;刷子; blow-blew-blown,吹, blown adj.开了花的;

eg: Here they wait out the frozen months, feeding mainly on sagebrush blown clear of snow.

wait sb/sth out sb/sth , to wait until sth happens or ends;

  1. wait somebody out       also wait out somebody: to allow time to go past until someone does something
I have time and he doesn’t, so I’ll wait him out until he agrees to sell the business to me. She hoped to wait out her opponent, but that has not worked.
  1. wait out something           also wait something out: to allow time to go past until something happens or ends
Should we leave now or wait out the storm?
notable; invariance不变性; severity严厉,苛刻/严重; constriction n.狭窄; bottlenecks; bounty奖金/大量给予之物; summer grazing n. – graze v.; grazing ~ range; windblown adj. plains; overwinter v. adj.; dependent VS independent; traverse n.v.adj.;  `forested hills; forecast; corridor; choke off;
eg: These pronghorn are notable for the invariance of their migration route and the severity of its constriction at three bottlenecks. Increasing development is leading toward a crisis for the pronghorn, threatening to choke off their passageway.
Immediate reward VS delayed gratification; grateful-gratification;
G段:  conservation: environment protection – conservative; the Forest Service 保护局; jurisdictions管辖权; `resolute n.adj. – resoluteness n.;

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