20th April: IELTS-test4-R1

 

A:      biomedical adj生物医学的; precious 珍贵的VS previous;  untangle v. – tangle n.v.纠纷;混乱;乱团;纷乱; the influence of genes Cn and environment基因和环境的影响; nature or nurture; identical twins; fertilized egg – fertilize v2; genetic code; genes n. -genetic adj.-genetically adv.遗传上的;  environmental factor环境因素; 

eg: Fertilize the plant no more than once a year. This will enhance flower growth.

Alternatively或者; fraternal: [frə’tɜː(r)n(ə)l]  twins; fraternal adj. 兄弟般的;quantify v.量化 the extent to which our genes affect our lives; effect n. VS affect v.;  with respect to ~ regarding ; an ailment n.小病; heredity n. 遗传,遗传特征; lovable VS adorable; ability VS inability n.无能; relative VS irrelative; root n.v.2搜寻,生根; Root hog or die. 苦干则全胜, 不然就大败;

vulnerability [ˌvʌlnərə’bɪlətɪ] n.弱点,攻击; 易伤性; 致命性; 脆弱性;

vulnerable adj. C2 able to be easily physically, emotionally, or mentally hurt, influenced, or attacked:
I felt very vulnerable, standing there without any clothes on.

eg: These letters show him to have been a lovable character.

题2: 题中 greater risk 和certain illnesses 未提到。所以为NG;


B:    in line和…成直线,排成一行; Be in line.; a line of一行,一列,一排 / two lines of research/ two lines of communication;  `interplay n.相互作用,相互影响;personality Cn人格,个性,性格;Cn名人;  personalize v. personalized adj.; take a twist n.v.扭转,捻,拧; unite v.联合,团结,统一 -reunite v. -reunion n.; rear v. ~sb 抚养,n.后面,屁股 adj.后面的, at/in the front or rear door/entrance;  carry out numerous tests/experiments;

date back  回溯至, B2 to have existed for a particular length of time or since a particular time:
This tradition dates back to medieval 中世纪times.;


vulnerability to disease; 

Another significant characteristic of the circulatory system is it’s vulnerability to disease.
循环系统的另一个明显的特征为它易受疾病的影响。


heredity n.遗传(过程);遗传特征- hereditary adj.遗传的;遗传性的;世袭的;有世袭身份(或头衔)的

inherit v.继承(传统,遗产,权利等);经遗传而得(性格,体质等);接受遗产;

inheritor n.继承人;后继者;遗产继承人;

inheritance [ɪn’herɪt(ə)ns] n继承;继承物(如金钱、财产等);遗产;遗传特征;

inheritable adj.可遗传的;有遗传性的


`pinpoint V.

C2 to find out or say the exact position in space or time of something:找出,指出
It is not possible to pinpoint precisely the time of death.

C2 to discover or describe the exact facts about something:发现
Emergency workers at the site are still unable to pinpoint the cause of the explosion.


C: invent a term发明一个术语; pioneer n.先锋;先驱;拓荒者;带头人v.倡导;当开拓者;做先锋;  pioneered research; genetic makeup基因组成/ genetic code基因编码, genetically adv;  an invisible hand;  shape our lives塑造我们的生活; In broad terms, 大体上说,宽泛的说; a trait n.特点;

eg;  In broad terms , the paper argues that each country should develop its own policy.
从大体上说,这份报纸认为各国应该建立自己的政策。
In broad terms, too much of the world economy depends on the U. S. consumer.
更宽泛来说,全球经济更多依赖美国消费者。


population  noun [ C, + sing/pl verb ] UK ​ /ˌpɒp.jəˈleɪ.ʃən/ US ​ /ˌpɑː.pjəˈleɪ.ʃən/
B1 all the people living in a particular country, area, or place:
eg:  Ten percent of the population lived in poverty.
In 1992 the population of Cairo was approximately 6,500,000.
a growing/shrinking population
Throughout the war, there were horrific casualties among the civilian populations of both countries.                `horrify v. horrible n. adj. horrific adj.
The country is facing a population explosion (= sudden growth in the number of people).

B2 all the people or animals of a particular type or group who live in one country, area, or place:
eg;  There’s been a nine percent rise in the prison population (= the number of people in prison).
The dolphin population has been decimated by tuna fishing.

research into someone or something 就…研究;
to study about someone or something thoroughly adv.[‘θʌrəli].

I decided that I would research into Queen Elizabeth.

We researched into the period in which she lived.

He has received many honours for his research into cancer.
他因从事癌症方面的研究工作而得到了许多荣誉.
His team are at the forefront of scientific research into vaccines[‘væksiːn].
他的小组处于疫苗科研的最前沿.


·heritage n.遗产(指国家或社会长期形成的历史、传统和特色) world heritage世界遗产; national heritage民族遗产

·heritable adj.可继承的;可传承的

heritability n.遗传率;遗传力;遗传可能性


heredity noun [ U UK /hɪˈred.ə.ti/ US /həˈred.ə.ti/

Diet and exercise can influence a person’s weight, but heredity is also a factor.

inheritance noun [ C usually singular, U UK /ɪnˈher.ɪ.təns/ US /ɪnˈher.ɪ.təns/

C2 money or objects that someone gives you when they die:

The large inheritance from his aunt meant that he could buy his own boat.
At 21 she came into her inheritance (= it was given to her).

heritage noun [ U UK /ˈher.ɪ.tɪdʒ/ US /ˈher.ɪ.t̬ɪdʒ/

C2 features belonging to the culture of a particular society, such as traditions, languages, or buildings, that were created in the past and still have historical importance:

These monuments n.2 are a vital part of the cultural heritage of South America.

legacy noun [ C UK /ˈleɡ.ə.si/ US /ˈleɡ.ə.si/

C2 money or property that you receive from someone after they die:遗产

An elderly cousin had left her a small legacy.

C2 something that is a part of your history or that remains from an earlier time:遗留问题,遗产;

The Greeks have a rich legacy of literature.

The war has left a legacy of hatred仇恨; 

extent  noun [ S or U ] UK /ɪkˈstent/ US /ɪkˈstent/
B2 area or length; amount:
From the top of the Empire State Building, you can see the full extent of Manhattan (= the area it covers).
We don’t yet know the extent of his injuries (= how bad his injuries are).
Rosie’s teacher was impressed by the extent of her knowledge (= how much she knew).
The River Nile is over 6,500 6,5000 kilometres in extent (= length).

the extent to which
C2 the degree to which something happens or is likely to happen:
She had not realized the extent to which the children had been affected.
to the same extent
to the same degree as; as much as:
The rich will not benefit from the proposed changes to the tax system to the same extent as the lower paid.
to such an extent
so much:
The car was damaged to such an extent that it couldn’t be repaired.
to what extent?
how much:
To what extent will the budget have to be modified?
To what extent do you think he’s aware of the problem?

shape  verb [ T ] UK /ʃeɪp/ US /ʃeɪp/ 塑造
C2 to decide or influence the form of something, especially a belief or idea, or someone’s character:
Many people are not able to shape their own destinies.
My relationship with my father played a major part in shaping my attitude towards men.
He was very influential in shaping the country’s economic policy/strategy.


radical noun [ C ] UK /ˈræd.ɪ.kəl/ US /ˈræd.ɪ.kəl/
C2 a person who supports great social and political change:激进分子
She was a radical all her life

radical adjective (VERY IMPORTANT)
C1 relating to the most important parts of something or someone; complete or extreme:重要的
We need to make some radical changes to our operating procedures.
I’m just having my hair trimmed – nothing radical.
a radical new conclusion;
radical adjective (SUPPORTING CHANGE)
C2 believing or expressing the belief that there should be great or extreme social or political change:彻底的,全新的,激进的
He was known as a radical reformer改革者/thinker/politician.      reform v.改革
These people have very radical views.

workforce 劳动力; elemental forces at work起作用,在工作; epigenetics 表观遗传学; serve v.服务;提供;接待;任期为; shape who we are;


D:    tie to; strength n.-strengthen and weak n.adj.-weaken; immense巨大的 ~ `numerous  VS immerse v. 使沉浸于; strike n.v. 罢工,击打-struck-struck; tune n.曲调 v.调整,调音;

tie someone or something to something
to bind someone or something to something.

eg: how each key can be struck?

The robber tied the clerk to a chair. I tied colored yarn to the birthday present.

robber 强盗;抢劫犯;盗贼VS rubber橡胶;橡皮;黑板擦;  yarn n.纱线,讲故事v. 讲故事 VS yard n.庭院;

E:   revolution n.革命-revolutionize v.完全改革 ; mechanics 力学,机械学,结构- mechanism 机制; impact on sth; rat  VS mouse; pregnancy n. – pregnant; `fetus VS `infant ; `rodent n. 啮齿动物 adj.; behavior AE. behaviour – behavioural problems关于行为的; liver n.肝; embryonic adj.胚胎期的; `organs 器官 – organic n.adj.有机的,绿色的;

hardwire c.硬链接;  alter – alterable – unalterable;

F: reed n.芦苇;  `​surge n.v.激增; `trailblazer n.创始人; heart disease; lifestyle;

mothering;    noun [ U ] UK ​ /ˈmʌð.ər.ɪŋ/ US ​ /ˈmʌð.ər.ɪŋ/
the process of caring for children as their mother or of caring for people in the way that a mother does:
He did not receive good mothering as a child.  poor mothering;
a woman’s mothering instinct

11题(归纳型定位); 题目不是原文中的词,对原文中的bones, brains and all the other parts of our bodies. 归纳为了organs。难点:归纳原文的词语,不好定位。

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