20 August: 9-test1-W1, map,历史变迁题

地图题知乎解析。在小作文当中,其实是可以不写结尾段的,分为 总-分-总 结构和 总-分 结构。

1)两种文章结构

地图题分段的两种方式: 几个图分几段

  1. 开头段:改写题目;
  2. 中间段1:写图1;
  3. 中间段2:写图2;
  4. 结尾段: 总结图1和图2展现出的总体变化

按照变化趋势/分类 分段。

  1. 开头段:改写题目+写出图中地方的总体方位+指出变化的两种类型(消失/缩小 vs 出现/扩大,比如The xx years have witnessed the growth or emergence of some items and the downsizing裁员 or disappearance of some others.
  2. 中间段1:写消失/缩小的地图项目
  3. 中间段2:写出现/扩大的地图项目
  4. 结尾段:总结总体变化

e.g.  the 20 years have witnessed the emergence of stores and the disappearance of farmland.
the 20 years have witnessed the growth of railways and decrease of houses.

downsize: VI/VT(使)减员,(使)(公司或组织)瘦身   to downsize your workforce/company    e.g.  The plight困境;苦难;苦境 of the economy is forcing businesses to downsize.

disappear VI. disappearance n.

2)两个核心要素: 方位和变化

即正文里面的句子都是在描述“某某项目在某个位置发生了什么变化”。

a)方位

地图中包含了多个项目,单纯拿出一个项目讲清楚其位置比较容易。但是把这些项目组织到一段文字中,就涉及各项目的组织顺序。一般而言,有两种思路值得参考:

中轴线+两侧

比如Cam911,可以以pier-reception-restaurant为整个地图的中轴线,之后再描述两侧的accommodation和最远端的beach。

起点+移步换景

同样以Cam911为例,可以想象一个游客登岛旅游的过程,一般都是从pier出发,然后到reception登记入住,然后可能入住accommodation或进入restaurant就餐,休息或就餐之后可能去beach游泳。具体到Cam911这个题目,上述两种方法差异不大。


The two maps below show an island, before and after the construction of some tourist facilities.

ielts_writing_task1_sample_50.png

分段方式: before 用过去式; after 用现在时;    蓝色表示 less common words. 粉色表示该段的逻辑思路。

The two maps compare the condition of an island before and after building some tourist facilities.

Before the construction of some tourist facilities, the island was completely bare apart from some trees distributed in the east and west and a beach in the west. The total length of the island is approximately 250 metres.

With the introduction of tourism, the island is accessible and more tourists have somewhere to stay compared to the first map (in the period after construction the island are more abundant in traffic, accommodation, and attractions). To convenient tour, two areas of accommodation are provided. One is in the west near the beach while the other is in the centre of this island. Around this two areas, some footpaths connect huts and a footpath connects to the beach directly.  Among them, there is a restaurant in the north and a central reception block, which is surrounded by a vehicle track. This track also goes down to the pier where people can go sailing in the south sea of the island. ( Besides that, There also built a reception to receive tourists and provide navigation. In addition, to convenient tour footpaths and vehicle tracks are built around accommodation, reception and restaurant. There also have a pier and some boats for carrying tourists. ) Except the beach already existed, some swimming areas are also exploited near the beach.

The differences of the two periods are great. More facilities like accommodation, traffic and so on are provided which make this island more suitable for tourism.

  1. 描述地图的时候,没有介绍尺寸和方位。大忌。
  2.  pier: 桥墩;(常设有娱乐场所的)突堤;(突入湖、河、海中的) 码头;突码头;  footpath  Cn;
  3. vehicle track:( 铁路)轨道,Un/ Cn    a ten-mile stretch of track  10英里长的铁轨。   Passengers are requested not to walk across the tracks.;      赛道;跑道 Cn  e.g. an all-weather track 全天候赛道  a dog/horse track 赛狗/马的跑道  The runners are now on their final lap of the track.  踪迹;足迹;车辙  Cn usually plural  e.g. The hunters followed the tracks of the deer for hours.
  4. surrounding: vt 环绕,包围;Cn 围绕物,围绕物,缘饰; surroundings 周边,附近.   condition: 状态。
  5. distribute 分发,分配 VS contribute 捐献;   respective adj. 分别的,各自的VS prospective adj. 有望的,预期的;

Sample answer: a band 7 score

  1. present the key features; the first map is described only briefly, this is acceptable for this particular task; The final paragraph summarises the main points effectively; The information is logically organised;
  2. a range of cohesive devices is used appropriately, with only occasional inaccuracies.
  3.  Some less common vocabulary and collocations搭配词 are used appropriately;   e.g. central reception block; western accommodation units.
  4. a variety of grammatical structures with no inaccuracies.

The two maps show the same island while first one is before and the second one is after the construction for tourism.

Looking first at the one before construction, we can see a huge island with a beach in the west. The total length of the island is approximately 250 metres.

Moving on to the second map, we can see that there are lots of buildings on the island. There are two areas of accommodation. One is in the west near the beach while the other one is in the centre of the island. Between them, there are a restaurant in the north and a central reception block, which is surrounded by a vehicle track. This track also goes down to the pier where people can go sailing in the south sea of the island. Furthermore, tourists can swim near the beach in the west. A footpath connecting the western accommodation units also leads to the beach.   逻辑很清晰,遵从信息流规则,old to new. 讲述two areas of accommodation. one is…while the other one is…;  between them, there is…;  This track also goes down to … where…; Furthermore,…;  this track also goes down to 说明,图中是一条铁路。

Overall, comparing the two maps, there are significant changes after this development. Not only lots of facilities are built on the island, but also the sea is used for activities. The new island has become a good place for tourism.

  1. first one(没有定冠词),主要用于表示泛指的场合(通常与 another 连用)。如:
    Twilight deepened, first one, then another star appeared. 暮色渐浓,先是一颗星星,接着又一颗星星出现了。She chose first one, then another, but neither was to her satisfaction.   ◎另外,当我们要表示两个当中“一个……另一个……”时,通常是用 one…the other…,但有时也说成 first one…the other…。 e.g.  Backstroke is a way of swimming on your back by moving first one arm then the other backwards while kicking your feet.                      the first one 主要用于特指的场合。如: Our house is the first one on the right.  After their argument, he was the first one to hold out an olive branch. 争吵过后,他首先示好。
  2. on the west VS in the west VS to the west  
  3. on the island no in the island, on 表示在什么上面;  One is in the west near the beach;  in the centre of sth;   in the south sea;  at 表示在某一个具体的地点,at the northeastern corner.
  4. n. east/west/south/north; adj. eastern/ western/ southern/ northern.  northeast/ southwest/ northwest/ southeastern;   left/right /upper/lower, 后面可以接side/part/half等表示“部分” ,  upper-left/lower-left corner;  outside n.adj. prep. adv. : on the outside of sth/to be outside of sth;
  5. go sailing; go shopping;  a central block;  western accommodation units;
  6. not only, but also    位于句首,有时也可见到不倒装的情形,正如你所疑问的句子那样。注意:此时主要见于上下文主语不一致;but also后接省略结构的情况(省略只剩下主语): Not only the students were tired, but the teacher, too.   Not only my mother was unhappy, but Marian,too. ▲为什么呢?这是因为省略以后,后一部分主语实际上可以被看做前一句主语的并列主语之故。换言之,后一部分一律可前置.
  7. 结尾可用 adj. industrializedmodernized

1. Introduction: As usual, we can start the essay by paraphrasing the question (rewrite the question in your own words).

2. Overview: For our second paragraph we need to summarise the information in a couple of sentences. When comparing diagrams, we can count the number of changes and look for the main types of changes.

(175 words, band 9)

分段方式:按照变化分类; 一段,buildings,二段,剩下的。

The diagrams illustrate some changes to a small island which has been developed for tourism.

It is clear that the island has changed considerably with the introduction引进 of tourism, and six new features can be seen in the second diagram. The main developments are that the island is accessible and visitors have somewhere to stay.

Looking at the maps in more detail, we can see that small huts棚屋;小屋 have been built to accommodate visitors to the island. The other physical structures that have been added are a reception building, in the middle of the island, and a restaurant to the north of the reception. Before these developments, the island was completely bare apart from a few trees.   变化趋势:buildings;

As well as the buildings mentioned above, the new facilities on the island include a pier, where boats can dock. There is also a short road linking the pier with the reception and restaurant, and footpaths connect the huts. Finally, there is a ’desig’nated指定的 swimming area for tourists off adv. 分开,隔开 a beach on the western tip尖端 of the island.   other facilities; 

  1. development: Un, 成长,发育;发展 healthy growth and development 发育  The documentary traced the development of popular music through the ages.   Cn 动态,进展 an important development in the fuel crisis 燃料危机中的一个重要进展  Call me if there are any new developments.
  2. huts ~  accommodation;  accommodate visitors;  visitors ~ tourists; reception building;  to the north of the reception间隔不接壤; Before these developments ~ before construction;  completely bare apart from sth;
  3. duck VS dock: n. 码头/泊位,船坞;  VI/VT, (使)停靠,(使)停泊,(使)进港
    Hundreds of people turned up出现 to see the ship dock at the pier.
  4. link sth with sth; link the pier with the reception and restaurant; in the middle of the island; in the centre of the island;  on the western tip of the island;

 

 

 

 

 

 

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