21 August: 10-t4-W1, 流程图

<十天>的经验:表示顺序的词/短语一定要多用。

  1. At the first stage of the process, …/ First, … / First of all, …/ The process begins with the Noun…/ At the second stage,…/ at the fourth stage,…
  2. After this,(英式英语更常用)/ After that,( 美式英语更常用)/ Next, / At the next stage of the process,/ At the following stage of the process. / then.
  3. At this stage, at this point.(在这个阶段)/ this stage lasts for up to six weeks.
  4. Finally.
  5. By the time that clause…; during that time; by the time 从句; at that time…; After a period of about three weeks.

示例结尾:Overall, the diagrams show that the cocoon stage of the silkworm can be used to produce silk cloth through a very simple process. 就像第一段一样再重新总结一遍,但是采取不同的角度。

The diagrams below show the life cycle of a species of large fish called the salmon.

a.jpg

The process diagrams illustrate the life cycle of salmon which is a kind of large fish.  Three main stages could be observed from these diagrams.

At the beginning, there are only salmon eggs, under reeds hidden among reeds in upper river where water moves slowly. Some small stones are mixed with salmon eggs in the bottom of river. After approximately five to six months, these salmon eggs will will turn into hatch into ‘fry’ which is only length n. three to eight centimetres. Apart from the length change, the habitat of fry also migrate from upper river, with slow moving, to lower river with fast flowing. At the next stage, fry would grow bigger to twelve to fifteen centimetres and termed ‘smolt’. In this stage, smolt is suitable to live in open sea. Before them grow into adult salmon which will take about 5 years, the number of smolt decreases in some degree. Finally, adult salmon which is between seventy and seventy-six centimetres come/swim back to their original place/birthplace to lay eggs for the next generation.

In summary, the salmon passes through three distinct physical stages as it grow to maturity. And a striking feature is that in each stage they grow in a very different aquatic location.

  1. 词汇量不够,句式和单词重复,除了会at the first stage of the process, the second stage,没啥可说的。适合在哪居住,生存环境也不会说。
  2. 最后总阶段不知道怎么写。
  3. salmon/fry/smolt作为一个鱼类,像fish一样,本身是复数的统称。
  4. apart from VS except:Apart from can mean either ‘including’ or ‘excluding’:    Apart from Germany, they also visited Italy and Austria. (including Germany, in addition to Germany)   I like all vegetables apart from tomatoes. (excluding tomatoes)

    Except for or except only mean ‘not including’ or ‘excluding’:  I like all vegetables except for tomatoes. (excluding tomatoes) Except for Jim, who is unwell, they are all ready to leave for America tomorrow.

  5. 可替换词汇:in the bottom of the river -> riverbed.  and the cycle starts anew -> for the next generation.

Sample answer: examiner’s answer;

分段方式: first stage,the second and third stage,总结段。

Salmon begin复数 life as eggs on a pebbly砾石覆盖的 riverbed, hidden among reeds in the slow-moving upper reaches of a river. After five to six months the eggs hatch into孵化成 ‘fry’. For approximately the four years, these baby salmon will live in the lower faster-flowing waters of their river. During this time they measure between three and eight centimetres in length.

By the time salmon reach twelve to fifteen centimetres, they are termed ‘smolt’, and at this time they migrate further downriver into the open sea公海,外海. After five years at sea the salmon will have grown to adult size, which is between seventy and seventy-six centimetres. Then they begin swimming back to their birthplace, where they will lay their eggs, and the cycle starts anew adv.重新,再.

In summary, the salmon passes through通过,经历 three distinct physical stages as it grows to maturity n.成熟,成年. Each of these stages takes place in a very different aquatic location.  It is noteworthy adj.值得注意的 that the first two stages of this fish’s life occur in a freshwater environment, while the third stage is lived in saltwater.

  1. water:  [ U ] 水     a bottle/drink/glass of water一瓶/份/杯水  bottled/mineral/tap water瓶装/矿泉/自来水  hot/cold water    Can I have a drop of water in my whisky, please?请在我的威士忌里加一点水,好吗?
    A2 [ U ] an area of water, such as the sea, a lake, or a swimming pool 水域;大片的水     e.g. The water’s warm – are you coming in?  I don’t like getting my head under (= in) water.
    [ U ] the level of an area of water 水位   The river is difficult to cross during periods of high water.
    waters [ plural ]某个国家的)领海,海域/ (某一湖泊、河流或海洋的)水域/ 羊水
    St Lucia depends on its clean coastal waters for its income.   In the shallow waters of the Gulf of Mexico, oil rigs attract fish.   At 3 a.m. her waters broke, and the baby was born soon after.
    the waters [ plural ]   泉水
    People used to come to this city to take (= drink or swim in) the waters.
    人们过去常来这座城市享用这里的泉水。
  2. begin life: 开始生活. experience a different life.   e.g.  The following are some key government websites and contact numbers where you can get information that can help you begin a new life in Canada.  I’m thinking to experience a different life before I begin my working life. He’d given Mr. Shi hope and friendship and Mr. Shi had found a way to begin life anew.
  3. in a freshwater environment. live in saltwater.  migrate into open sea; downriver: adj. 下游的,adv.向下游。metre; centimetre; kilometre;  gram; kilogram; tonne公吨; ton; ton VS tonne:  In American English, a ton is a unit of measurement equaling 2,000 pounds. In non-U.S. measurements, a ton equals 2,240 pounds. A tonne, also known as a metric ton, is a unit of mass equaling 1,000 kilograms.American English speakers generally have no use for tonne, so the spelling rarely appears in U.S. publications. Elsewhere, fastidious adj.一丝不苟的,严谨的 publications use the appropriate spellings for the units of measurement. And ton (often pluralized) is used informally as a noun meaning a large extent, amount, or number.
  4. during that time; by the time 从句; at that time…; 
  5. 模版句: In summary, sth passes through three distinct physical stages as it grows to maturity.    It is noteworthy that… while…;  A striking feature however, is that…; 
  6. term: 把..叫做   e.g. They are termed ‘smolt’.   maturity n. mature adj. v.

Given are the diagrams which reveal graphically the life cycle of a species of big fishes, namely salmon. Overall, the cycle encompasses the phases from eggs to mature fishes.

To begin with, the eggs are laid among pebbles and branches of reeds at upper river which the flow is slow. As time goes by, after about 5-6 months, the eggs hatch and fries take shape with the length of 3-8 centimeters. Thence, the fly migrate to the lower level of rivers in which the stream is fast, and they live in this condition for 4 years, thereby growing and becoming longer. At this stage, they are called smolt and their length is somewhere in the region of 12-15 centimeters, and they are able to enter open seas and cope with waves by which the stream becomes more turbulent. Afterwards, after 5 years, the fishes grow up completely and their length increases to 70-76 centimeters approximately.

To sum up, the life cycle of the salmon consists of 4 stages within which the eggs turn into mature fishes.

  1. flow 流 – stream 流,溪,小河 – current (海洋或江河的)水流,电流;

The illustrations show the various sequences n.序列,顺序 of life stages undergone v.经历 by a salmon.

The cycle starts in the upper river where the slow current allows deposition of salmon eggs below the aquatic vegetation植物 called reeds, usually underneath small pebbles. In here, they will spend the first 5 to 6 months until they are ready to hatch into small baby salmons known as “fry.” After which, they travel to the fast flowing area of the lower river where they will stay for the next 4 years.

Small fry measures about 3 to 8cm in length. Once they reach 12-15cm, they enter the next stage of their development. At this point, they are now called “smolt.”

During this stage, they will migrate to the open sea and for the next 5 years, they will gradually transition into the next stage of their maturation, the adult salmon. A fully mature salmon can grow as much as 70-76cm in length.

When it is time to start the next generation, adult salmons return to their place of birth, where they will once again lay their eggs to start the cycle anew.

 

 

 

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s