- abase verb UK /əˈbeɪs/ US /əˈbeɪs/ formal
abase yourself: to make yourself seem to be less important or to not deserve respect贬低自己；卑躬屈膝 I will not abase myself by dating a girl like that.
- altitude noun [ C ] UK /ˈæl.tɪ.tʃuːd/ US /ˈæl.tə.tuːd/height above sea level 海拔，海拔高度
We are currently flying at an altitude of 15,000 metres.
Mountain climbers use oxygen when they reach higher altitudes.
- attitude noun UK /ˈæt.ɪ.tʃuːd/ US /ˈæt̬.ə.tuːd/
attitude noun (OPINION)
B1 [ C or U ] a feeling or opinion about something or someone, or a way of behaving that is caused by this 心态；看法；态度
It’s often very difficult to change people’s attitudes.
[ + that ] She takes the attitude that children should be allowed to learn at their own pace. 在儿童学习步调快慢的问题上，她的态度是应顺其自然。
He has a very bad attitude to/towards work.
他的工作态度极差。That boy has a real attitude problem (= behaves in a way that makes it difficult for other people to have a relationship with him or work with him).那个孩子的态度很成问题。
- ascend verb UK /əˈsend/ US /əˈsend/ formal
ascend verb (GO UP) [ I or T ] to move up or climb something 上升；攀登；登上
They slowly ascended the steep path up the mountain.
There’s a long flight of steps ascending (= leading up) to the cathedral doors.
ascend verb (HIGHER POSITION) [ I ] to rise to a position of higher rank登上高的职位；升级，晋级
He eventually ascended to the position of chief executive.
- executive noun [ C ] UK /ɪɡˈzek.jə.tɪv/ US /ɪɡˈzek.jə.t̬ɪv/ C1 informal exec, someone in a high position, especially in business, who makes decisions and puts them into action（尤指商业机构中的）行政主管，经理
She is now a senior executive, having worked her way up through the company.
the part of a government that is responsible for making certain that laws and decisions are put into action（政府）行政部门
a group of people who run a business or an organization（公司或组织的）执行委员会，领导层
The executive of the health workers’ union accepted the proposed pay increase on behalf of their members. 卫生保健工作者工会执行委员会代表其会员接受了加薪的提
executive adjective [ before noun ] UK /ɪɡˈzek.jə.tɪv/ US /ɪɡˈzek.jə.t̬ɪv/ C1 relating to making decisions and managing businesses, or suitable for people with important jobs in business 决策的，管理的；供重要人物使用的
His executive skills will be very useful to the company.
executive cars 豪华汽车 an executive suite 贵宾套房
- alight adjective [ after verb ] UK /əˈlaɪt/ US /əˈlaɪt/
alight adjective [ after verb ] (BURNING) burning 燃烧的；着火的
I had to use a bit of petrol to get the fire alight.
The rioters overturned several cars and set them alight.
He was smoking in bed and his blankets caught alight.
alight adjective [ after verb ] (SHINING BRIGHTLY)brightly lit up照亮的
The sky was alight with hundreds of fireworks.
literary showing excitement and happiness 容光焕发的；兴奋的，喜悦的
Her eyes were alight with mischief.
alight verb (GET OUT OF) [ I ] formal to get out of a vehicle, especially a train or bus（尤指从火车或公共汽车上）下来，下去
The suspect alighted from the train at Euston and proceeded to Heathrow.
alight verb (LAND ON) [ I + adv/prep ] formal to land on something 降落，飞落
A butterfly alighted gently on the flower.
[ I + adv/prep ] literary to find or unexpectedly see something发现；偶然碰见；无意间发觉
As she glanced round the room her eyes alighted upon a small child.
I spent an hour in the bookshop before alighting on the perfect present.
- the acme noun [ S ] UK /ˈæk.mi/ US /ˈæk.mi/ literary
the best or most perfect thing that can exist or be achieved顶峰，顶点
To act on this world-famous stage is surely the acme of any actor’s career.
- bounce verb UK /baʊns/ US /baʊns/
bounce verb (JUMP) B1 [ I or T ] to (cause to) move up or away after hitting a surface（使）弹起，（使）反弹；反射；跳跃
The ball bounced off the goalpost and into the net.
She bounced the ball quickly.她快速地拍球。
Her bag bounced (= moved up and down) against her side as she walked.
The children had broken the bed by bouncing (= jumping up and down) on it.
He bounced the baby (= lifted it up and down) on his knee.
B2 [ I usually + adv/prep ] to move in an energetic and enthusiastic manner（人）蹦蹦跳跳
Tom bounced in, smiling broadly.
bounce verb (NOT PAY) [ I or T ] informal to (cause a cheque to) not be paid or accepted by a bank because there is no money in the account （因账上存款不敷）（使支票）拒付，退回
I had to pay a penalty fee when my cheque bounced.
To my horror the bank bounced the cheque.令我震惊的是，银行拒付了支票。
bounce verb (EMAIL) C2 [ I or T ] If an email that you send bounces or is bounced, it comes back to you because the address is wrong or there is a computer problem.（电子邮件）被退回，发送（电子邮件）失败
bounce noun (MOVEMENT) [ C or U ] the act of bouncing, or the quality that makes something able to bounce弹，反弹；弹力，弹性
In tennis you have to hit the ball before its second bounce.
figurative This shampoo will give your hair bounce (= make it look attractively thick) and shine. 这种洗发精会使头发富有弹性和光泽。
- penalty noun [ C ] UK /ˈpen.əl.ti/ US /ˈpen.əl.ti/
penalty noun [ C ] (PUNISHMENT) B2 a punishment, or the usual punishment, for doing something that is against a law刑罚，惩罚，处罚
The law carries a penalty of up to three years in prison.
They asked for the maximum penalty for hoax calls to be increased to one year.
The protesters were told to clear the area around the building, on penalty of arrest (= or be arrested) if they did not.
B2 a type of punishment, often involving paying money, that is given to you if you break an agreement or do not follow rules罚金，罚款
Currently, ticket holders pay a penalty equal to 25 percent of the ticket price when they change their flight plans.
There was a penalty clause which said you had to pay half the cost if you cancelled your booking.
B2 an advantage given in some sports to a team or player when the opposing team or player breaks a rule（体育运动中对犯规者的）判罚，处罚
The referee awarded (= gave) a penalty kick.
Hysen handled the ball and conceded the penalty that gave Manchester United the lead.海森控球犯规，给了曼联队一次罚球机会，使他们取得了领先。
- concede verb UK /kənˈsiːd/ US /kənˈsiːd/
concede verb (ADMIT) C2 [ T ] to admit, often unwillingly, that something is true （常指不情愿地）承认
[ + (that) ] The government has conceded (that) the new tax policy has been a disaster.政府承认新的税收政策是彻底失败的。
[ + speech ] “Well okay, perhaps I was a little hard on her,” he conceded.
[ I or T ] to admit that you have lost in a competition 认输；承认（失败）
He kept on arguing and wouldn’t concede defeat. 他一直争论个不停，不愿认输。
She conceded even before all the votes had been counted. 选票还没全部统计出来她就认输了。
concede verb (GIVE AWAY) C2 [ T ] to allow someone to have something, even if you do not want to （不情愿地）让步，答应给，让与
The president is not expected to concede these reforms. 估计总统不会同意这些改革。
He is not willing to concede any of his power/authority. 他不愿交出自己的任何权力。
Britain conceded (= allowed) independence to India in 1947. 英国在1947年承认印度独立。
concede a goal/point：to fail to stop an opposing team or person from winning a point or game 没能阻止对方进球（或得分）
The team conceded two goals (to the other side) in the first five minutes of the game. 开赛后5分钟内，球队就送了（对方）两个球。
- clause noun [ C ] UK /klɔːz/ US /klɑːz/ 从句，分句 He has a clause in his contract which entitles him to a percentage of the profits.
clause noun [ C ] (LEGAL DOCUMENT) law a particular part of a written legal document, for example a law passed by Parliament or a contract (= an agreement)（法律文件的）条款，款项
They have added/deleted/amended a clause in the contract which says the company can make people redundant for economic reasons. 他们在合同中增加／删除／修改了一项条款，该条款称公司可以因为经济原因裁减人员。
Clause 4 of the constitution is thought to be the most important section. 宪法第四条被认为是最重要的部分。
- campus noun [ C or U ] UK /ˈkæm.pəs/ ——-compass noun UK /ˈkʌm.pəs/ US /ˈkʌm.pəs/
compass noun (DIRECTION DEVICE) [ C ] a device for finding direction with a needle that can move easily and that always points to magnetic north指南针，罗盘
compass noun (MEASURING DEVICE)
compasses [ plural ] a V-shaped device that is used for drawing circles or measuring distances on maps 圆规，双脚规
compass noun (LIMIT) [ U ] formal a particular range (of ability, activity, interest, etc.) （能力、活动、兴趣等的）界限，范围，范畴
It’s a musical instrument made of brass, somewhat like a cornet and with a similar compass. 这是一件黄铜乐器，跟短号有些类似，音域也与之相近。
The discussion went beyond the compass of my brain. 讨论超出了我的理解能力。
- climax noun [ C ] UK /ˈklaɪ.mæks/ US /ˈklaɪ.mæks/
the most important or exciting point in a story or situation, especially when this happens near the end高潮；最精彩的部分；顶点
The climax of the air show was a daring flying display. 航空展的高潮是惊险刺激的飞行表演。 The election campaign reaches its climax next week. 下周竞选活动将进入白热化。
the highest point of sexual pleasure 性高潮
climax verb [ I ] UK /ˈklaɪ.mæks/ US /ˈklaɪ.mæks/ to reach the most important or exciting part 达到高潮；达到顶点
The show climaxed with all the performers singing on stage together.
所有演员同台高歌把演出推向了高潮。The Olympics climaxed in a spectacular closing ceremony. 奥运会在壮观的闭幕式中达到了高潮。
to reach the highest point of sexual pleasure 达到性高潮
- anticlimax noun [ C or U ] UK /ˌæn.tiˈklaɪ.mæks/ US /ˌæn.t̬iˈklaɪ.mæks/
an event or experience that causes disappointment because it is less exciting than was expected or because it happens immediately after a much more interesting or exciting event 扫兴，扫兴的结局
When you really look forward to something it’s often an anticlimax when it actually happens.你期盼的事情一旦成真时，你却常常会感到并不如想象的那样令人兴奋。
Coming home after a trip somewhere is always a bit of an anticlimax.
Even when you win a match there’s often a sense of anticlimax – you always feel you could have played better.
- discrepancy VS difference: discrepancy noun [ C or U ] a difference between two things that should be the same不一致，出入，差异There is some discrepancy between the two accounts. 这两份账单之间有一些出入。
The committee is reportedly unhappy about the discrepancy in numbers. 据说委员会对数字不一致很不满。
- reportedly adverb UK /rɪˈpɔː.tɪd.li/ C2 according to what many people say据传闻，据称
New York is reportedly a very exciting place to live. 人们都说在纽约生活很令人振奋。
- irrationality Un.—-irrational adj.—-irrationally adv.—-rationality—-rational—-rationally. irrational adjective UK /ɪˈræʃ.ən.əl/ C2 not using reason or clear thinking:It’s totally irrational, but I’m frightened of mice.
His parents were worried by his increasingly irrational behaviour.rational adjective UK /ˈræʃ.ən.əl/ US /ˈræʃ.ən.əl/ C1 based on clear thought and reason:There must be some rational explanation for what happened.
a rational act/course of action
a rational argument/decision
He was too upset to be rational.
- immensely /ɪ’mensli/UK adv. 极大地, 无限地 vastly, extremely or to a great extent
The doctor says, “a tea break with the nurses is immensely valuable. We always talk shop. It’s the only real chance we get to chat about our patients.”
医生说：“和护士们一起喝茶休息是十分值得的。我们总是谈本行。实际上我们只有这个时候才能一起聊聊我们病人的情况。” Some elder people enjoy Beijing opera immensely. 有些上了年纪的人非常喜爱京剧。 I enjoyed it immensely.
- vastly: very much. vastly different;vastly superior; vastly improved
- affinity /ə’fɪnəti/UK n. 姻亲,密切关系,吸引力 a strong connection or relationship between people or things
There is a close affinity between Italian and Spanish. 意大利语和西班牙语关系密切。Sam was born in the country and had a deep affinity with nature. 萨姆在乡下出生，特别喜爱大自然。
- ironic—-ironically: ironic also ironical adjective UK /aɪˈrɒn.ɪk/ C2 interesting, strange, or funny because of being very different from what you would usually expect具有讽刺意味的；出乎意料的；令人啼笑皆非的
[ + that ] It is ironic that although many items are now cheaper to make, fewer people can afford to buy them. 具有讽刺意味的是，虽然如今很多物品的制作成本下降了，但能买得起的人却少了。
showing that you really mean the opposite of what you are saying反语的；讽刺的
an ironic comment/reply 讽刺的评论／挖苦的回答 Ironically, the murderer was killed with his own gun. 饶有讽刺意味的是，杀人者被自己的枪所击毙。Ironically, most people came to watch the match on the day it poured with rain. 老天爷好像成心捉弄人，很多人前来看比赛却偏偏下起瓢泼大雨
- confer verb UK /kənˈfɜːr/ US /kənˈfɝː/ –
confer verb (TALK) [ I ] to exchange ideas on a particular subject, often in order to reach a decision on what action to take（常指为达成行动决议而）商讨，商议，协商
I need some time to confer with my lawyer.
confer verb (GIVE) [ T ] to give an official title, honour, or advantage to someone授予（称号、荣誉）；赋予（优势）
An honorary doctorate was conferred on him by Columbia University.
- charity—-charitable adj. an English speaking nation. the spoken word口头语言