26 March: ielts8-test2-R1

Sheet glass manufacture: the float process

A: Glass, which has been made since the time of the Mesopotamians and Egyptians, is little more than a mixture of sand, soda ash and lime. When heated to about 1500 degrees Celsius (.C) this becomes a molten mass that hardens变硬 when slowly cooled. The first successful method for making clear, flat glass involved spinning. This method was very effective as the glass had not touched any surfaces between being soft and becoming hard, so it stayed perfectly unblemished, with a ‘fire finish’. However, the process took a long time and was labour/labor intensive劳动密集.

  1. lime 酸橙,石灰。
  2. Celsius noun [ U ], adjective UK ​ /ˈsel.si.əs/ US ​ /ˈsel.si.əs/ also centigrade, written abbreviation C摄氏温度
    Are the temperatures given in Celsius or Fahrenheit?温度是用摄氏温度还是华氏温度标出的?The sample was heated to (a temperature of) 80°C.样本被加热到了80摄氏度。
    Compare: Fahrenheit adjective, noun [ U ] UK ​ /ˈfær.ən.haɪt/
  3. melt v —- molten adjective UK ​ /ˈməʊl.tən/ US ​ /ˈmoʊl.tən/
    ​Molten metal or rock is in a liquid state because of great heat.熔化的,熔融的
    molten glass/lava/lead熔化的玻璃/岩浆/铅melt verb UK ​ /melt/ US ​ /melt/
    melt verb (BECOME LIQUID)
    ​B2 [ I or T ] to turn from something solid into something soft or liquid, or to cause something to do this(使)融化;(使)熔化;(使)溶解
    The snow usually melts by mid March.通常雪到3月中旬就都融化了。
    Melt the chocolate slowly so that it doesn’t burn.将巧克力慢慢融化,这样就不会烧焦。
    The meat’s beautifully cooked – it melts in your mouth (= is so pleasantly soft that you do not need to chew it).肉做得极好——柔嫩可口。
  4. mass adjective [ before noun ] UK ​ /mæs/ US ​ /mæs/
    ​C1 having an effect on or involving a large number of people or forming a large amount大量的;大规模的;大批的
    weapons of mass destruction大规模杀伤性武器.  a mass murderer杀人狂.  mass starvation饥荒成灾.  Opposition groups plan to stage mass demonstrations all over the country.反对组织计划在全国发起大规模游行示威。During times of mass unemployment, there’s a pool of cheap labour for employers to draw from.
    mass noun (LARGE AMOUNT)
    ​B2 [ S ] a large amount of something that has no particular shape or arrangement大量;大批;众多
    The explosion reduced the church to a mass of rubble.爆炸使教堂变成了一堆瓦砾。
    The forest is a mass of colour in autumn.秋季的森林色彩斑斓。
    masses [ plural ] uk informal​   B2 a lot许多,大量
    [ + to infinitive ] I’ve got masses to do at the weekend.我周末有许多事要做。
    There were masses of people in town today.今天城里人很多。
    mass noun (SOLID LUMP)
    [ C ] a solid lump with no clear shape团,块,堆
    The sauce was now a sticky mass at the bottom of the pan.酱汁现在成了黏稠的一团,粘在平底锅锅底。
    mass noun (ORDINARY PEOPLE)
    the masses​:  the ordinary people who form the largest group in a society群众,平民
    He was popular with the rich but failed to win the support of the masses.他很受贵族阶层的欢迎,但没有赢得民众的支持。
  5. luminous adjective UK ​ /ˈluː.mɪ.nəs/ US ​ /ˈluː.mə.nəs/
    ​producing or reflecting bright light (especially in the dark)(尤指在黑暗中)发亮的,放光的;夜光的
    luminous clothing夜光服
  6. blemish—-unblemished;     blemish noun UK ​ /ˈblem.ɪʃ/ US ​ /ˈblem.ɪʃ/
    blemish noun (MARK)
    ​[ C ] a mark on something that spoils its appearance疤痕;斑点;瑕疵
    freckles, scars, and other minor skin blemishes雀斑、疤痕及其他皮肤上的小瑕疵
    blemish noun (FAULT)​[ C or U ] a fault in a person’s character(人品性上的)污点,缺点.   Is any politician’s record without blemish on this issue?在这个问题上,有哪个政客没有污点记录?
    blemish verb [ T ] UK ​ /ˈblem.ɪʃ/ US ​ /ˈblem.ɪʃ/​to spoil something损害;破坏
    This latest revelation has seriously blemished the governor’s reputation.最近揭露的这件事严重损害了州长的名誉。unblemished adjective UK ​ /ʌnˈblem.ɪʃt/ US ​ /ʌnˈblem.ɪʃt/
    ​An unblemished reputation, character, etc. has no faults and is not spoiled in any way.(名声等)无瑕疵的,无污点的
    For six years his championship record was unblemished.他的冠军纪录有6年无任何瑕疵。
  7. spoil verb UK ​ /spɔɪl/ US ​ /spɔɪl/ spoiled or spoilt, spoiled or spoilt
    spoil verb (DESTROY)
    ​B1 [ T ] to destroy or reduce the pleasure, interest, or beauty of something破坏;糟蹋;毁掉
    He tried not to let the bad news spoil his evening.他努力不让那个坏消息破坏他晚上的兴致。The oil spill溢出 has spoiled the whole beautiful coastline.溢出的石油破坏了整段漂亮的海岸线。I haven’t seen the film, so don’t spoil it for me by telling me what happens.我还没看那部电影,所以别把内容告诉我,以免坏了我的兴致。
    ​[ I or T ] When food spoils or is spoiled, it is no longer good enough to eat.(使)(食物)变质,(使)变坏
    The dessert will spoil if you don’t keep it in the fridge.如果你不把甜点放在冰箱里,它会坏掉的。
    ​[ T ] uk specialized politics to mark a ballot paper so that it cannot be officially counted as a vote使(选票)作废
    Since she supported none of the candidates, she spoiled her ballot paper.几个候选人她哪个都不支持,因此她把选票作废了。
    spoil verb (TREAT WELL)
    ​[ T ] to treat someone very or too well, especially by being extremely generous(尤指极其慷慨地)宠爱,溺爱,纵容
    When I’m feeling miserable I go shopping and spoil myself – a couple of new dresses always make me feel better.我心情糟糕的时候,就会去购物放纵一下自己——买上几件新衣服总会让我感觉好些。
    spoil verb (CHILD)
    ​C1 [ T ] disapproving to allow a child to do or have everything that it wants to, usually so that it expects to get everything it wants and does not show respect to other people溺爱,娇惯;宠坏
    Mr Harvey, unable for once to do exactly as he wanted, sulked just like a spoiled child.
  8. spin verb UK ​ /spɪn/ US ​ /spɪn/ present participle spinning, past tense spun, past participle uk also span
    spin verb (TURN)  ​C1 [ I or T ] to (cause to) turn around and around, especially fast(使)(尤指快速)旋转
    The earth spins on its axis.地球绕地轴旋转。The roulette players silently watched the wheel spin around/round.玩轮盘赌的玩家们默不作声地注视着轮盘旋转。He was killed when his car hit a tree and spun off the road.他的车撞在树上甩出路面,他因此而丧生。Spin the ball (= make it turn around and around as you throw it) and it will change direction when it hits the ground.把球旋转起来再抛出去,球触地时就会改变方向。

B: Nevertheless, demand for flat glass was very high and glass makers across the world were looking for a method of making it continuously. The first continuous ribbon process involved squeezing molten glass through two hot rollers, similar to an old mangle. This allowed glass of virtually any thickness to be made non-stop, but the rollers would leave both sides of the glass marked, and these would than need to be ground and polished. This part of the process rubbed away around 20 per cent of the glass, and the machines were very expensive. 

  1. nevertheless adverb UK ​ /ˌnev.ə.ðəˈles/ US ​ /ˌnev.ɚ.ðəˈles/ also nonetheless
    ​B2 despite what has just been said or referred to不过,仍然;尽管如此
    I knew a lot about the subject already, but her talk was interesting nevertheless.关于这个话题我已经知之甚多,但她的报告听起来还是很有趣。
  2. ribbon noun UK ​ /ˈrɪb.ən/ US ​ /ˈrɪb.ən/​
    C2 [ C or U ] a long, narrow strip of material used to tie things together or as a decoration(捆扎或装饰用的)带子,丝带缎带
    Sandra often wears a ribbon in her hair. 桑德拉常在头发上扎条丝带。
    He tied up the present with ribbon. 他用缎带将礼物包扎起来。
  3. mangle verb UK ​ /ˈmæŋ.ɡəl/ US ​ /ˈmæŋ.ɡəl/
    [ T often passive ] to destroy something by twisting it with force or tearing it into pieces so that its original form is completely changed绞坏;撕烂
    My sweater got mangled in the washing machine.我的毛衣被洗衣机绞坏了。
    His arm was mangled in the machine.他的手臂被机器绞得血肉模糊。
    ​[ T ] If you mangle a speech or a piece of written work, you make so many mistakes that you completely spoil it.(因错误太多而)损坏,弄糟
    As he read the poem out loud, he mangled the rhythm so badly that it hardly made any sense.他朗读这首诗时完全不合韵律,致使诗歌听上去毫无意义。
    mangle noun [ C ] UK ​ /ˈmæŋ.ɡəl/ US ​ /ˈmæŋ.ɡəl/ also wringer
    ​a machine used for pressing water out of clothes by putting the clothes between two heavy, smooth, round bars衣物轧干机
  4. polish verb [ T ] UK ​ /ˈpɒl.ɪʃ/ US ​ /ˈpɑː.lɪʃ/​to rub something using a piece of cloth or brush to clean it and make it shine擦,擦亮,磨光
    to polish the furniture擦家具.
    Polish your shoes regularly to protect the leather.定期擦拭你的鞋以保护皮革。
  5. rub verb [ I or T ] UK ​ /rʌb/ US ​ /rʌb/ –bb
    ​B2 to press or be pressed against something with a circular or up-and-down repeated movement擦;摩擦;搓;揉搓
    She yawned and rubbed her eyes sleepily.她打着哈欠睡意蒙地揉着眼睛。
    He rubbed (at) the stain on his trousers and made it worse.他去擦裤子上的污渍,结果越擦越脏。We rubbed some polish into the surface of the wood.我们在木头表面刷了一些亮光漆。She gently rubbed the ointment in.她轻轻揉搓使药膏渗入。

C: The float process for making flat glass was invented by Alistair Pilkington. This process allows the manufacture of clear, tinted and coated glass for buildings and clear and tinted glass for vehicles. Pilkington had been experimenting with improving the melting process, and in 1952 he had the idea of using a bed of molten metal to form the flat glass, eliminating altogether the need for rollers within the float bath浮槽. The metal had to melt at a temperature less than the hardening point of glass (about 600.C), but could not boil at a temperature below the temperature of the molten glass (about 1500.C). The best metal for the job was tin.

  1. tint—-tinted adj.            tint noun [ C ] UK ​ /tɪnt/ US ​ /tɪnt/​
    a small amount of a colour淡淡的色泽(或色调)
    The paint we’re using for the bathroom is white with a yellow tint.我们刷浴室的涂料是白色的,但有点儿偏黄。The evening sky was deep pink, with tints of purple and red in it. 傍晚的天空呈深粉红色,夹杂着淡淡的紫色和红色。tinted adjective [ before noun ] UK ​ /ˈtɪn.tɪd/ US ​ /ˈtɪn.t̬ɪd/​
    (of glass) with colour added(玻璃)有色的
    Tinted glasses (= glasses with slightly darkened lenses) are good for driving in bright sunlight.戴有色眼镜有利于在强光下开车。
    The president arrived at the airport in a car with tinted windows (= windows with darkened glass so that people cannot see into the car).总统乘坐车窗为有色玻璃的轿车到达了机场。
  2. coat n. 大衣 —- coated adjective UK ​ /ˈkəʊ.tɪd/ US ​ /ˈkoʊ.t̬ɪd/
    ​thickly covered厚厚一层的;涂着一层的;覆盖着一层的
    Your trousers are coated in mud!你的裤子上满是泥巴!
  3. eliminate verb UK ​ /iˈlɪm.ɪ.neɪt/ US ​ /iˈlɪm.ə.neɪt/
    ​C1 [ T ] to remove or take away someone or something排除;消除;清除
    A move towards healthy eating could help eliminate heart disease.养成健康的饮食习惯有助于消除心脏病诱因。We eliminated the possibility that it could have been an accident.我们排除了这或许是一起意外事故的可能性。The police eliminated him from their enquiries.警察已把他排除在调查对象之外。
    ​C1 [ T often passive ] to defeat someone so that they cannot continue in a competition(比赛中)淘汰
    He was eliminated in the third round of the competition.他在第3轮比赛中被淘汰。

D: The rest of the concept relied on gravity, which guaranteed that the surface of the molten metal was perfectly flat and horizontal. Consequently, when pouring molten glass onto the molten tin, the underside of the glass would also be perfectly flat. If the glass were kept hot enough, it would flow over the molten tin until the surface was also flat, horizontal and perfectly parallel to the bottom surface. Once the glass cooled to 604.C or less it was too hard to mark and could be transported out of the cooling zone by rollers. The glass settled to a thickness of six millimetres毫米 because of surface tension interactions between the glass and the tin. By fortunate coincidence, 60 per cent of the flat glass market at that time was for 6-millimetre glass. 巧合的是,当时60%的平板玻璃市场用于6毫米玻璃

  1. parallel adjective UK ​ /ˈpær.ə.lel/ US ​ /ˈper.ə.lel/
    parallel adjective (POSITION)
    If two or more lines, streets, etc. are parallel, the distance between them is the same all along their length.平行的
    Draw a pair of parallel lines.画两条平行线。Hills Road is parallel to Mill Road.希尔斯路和米尔路平行。

E: Pilkington built a pilot plant试验工厂 in 1953 and by 1955 he had convinced his company to build a full-scale plant. However, it took 14 months of non-stop production, costing the company 100,000 a month, before the plant produced any usable glass. Furthermore, once they succeeded in making marketable flat glass, the machine was turned off for a service to prepare it for years of continuous production. When it started up again it took another four months to get the process right again. They finally succeeded in 1959 and there are now float plants all over the world, with each able to produce around 1000 tons of glass every day, no-stop for around 15 years. 

  1. pilot n.飞行员 pilot adjective [ before noun ] UK ​ /ˈpaɪ.lət/ US ​ /ˈpaɪ.lət/
    ​A pilot plan, product, or system is used to test how good something is before introducing it.试验性的,试点的
    If the pilot scheme is successful, many more homes will be offered the new television service.如果试验计划成功,会有越来越多的家庭享受到新的电视服务。
    pilot verb [ T ] UK ​ /ˈpaɪ.lət/ US ​ /ˈpaɪ.lət/
    pilot verb [ T ] (AIRCRAFT)​ to fly an aircraft飞行
    She piloted the aircraft to safety after one of the engines failed.其中一个引擎发生故障后,她将飞机开到了安全的地方。
    pilot verb [ T ] (TEST)​:to test a new product before it is sold(在销售前)试验(新产品)
    We shall pilot several new cosmetic products to selected potential purchasers.我们将在一些选定的潜在顾客身上试用几种新化妆品。
  2. plant noun (BUILDING/MACHINES)
    ​[ U ] machines used in industry机器,设备
    The industry was accused of having invested little in workers, plant, or infrastructure.工业界被指责在工人、工厂和基础设施方面投入太少。
    ​[ C ] a factory in which a particular product is made or power is produced工厂
    Two more car-assembly plants were closed by the strike.另有两家汽车装配厂因罢工而关闭。
    ​[ U ] uk a large, heavy machine or vehicle used in industry, for building roads, etc.(用于修路等的重型)设备,装置,机械
    The sign by the roadworks said “Slow – heavy plant crossing”.道路工程旁边的告示牌上写着“减速——前方有重型施工机械”。The firm’s main business was plant hire.这家公司的主要业务是设备租赁。
  3. marketable adjective UK ​ /ˈmɑː.kɪ.tə.bəl/ US ​ /ˈmɑːr.kɪ.t̬ə.bəl/
    ​Marketable products or skills are easy to sell because a lot of people want them.有销路的,适销对路的
    This is a highly marketable product.这是个非常有销路的产品。

F: Float plants today make glass of near optical quality视觉质量. Several processes – melting, refining, homogenising – take place simultaneously in the 2000 tonnes of molten glass in the furnace. They occur in separate zones in a complex glass flow driven by high temperatures. It adds up to a continuous melting process, lasting as long as 50 hours, that delivers glass smoothly and continuously to the float bath, and from there to a coating zone and finally a heat treatment zone, where stresses formed during cooling are relieved缓解.

  1. optical adjective UK ​ /ˈɒp.tɪ.kəl/ US ​ /ˈɑːp.tɪ.kəl/
    ​relating to light or the ability to see光学的;视觉的;视力的
    an optical effect视觉效果。an optical microscope光学显微镜
  2. define VS refine verb [ T ] UK ​ /rɪˈfaɪn/ US ​ /rɪˈfaɪn/
    ​to make something pure or improve something, especially by removing unwanted material(尤指去除不需要的杂质而)精炼,提炼,提纯
    Crude oil is industrially refined to purify it and separate out the different elements, such as benzene.原油经过工业提炼来提纯并且分离出诸如苯之类的不同元素。
    ​C2 to improve an idea, method, system, etc. by making small changes改进;完善;使精炼
    Engineers spent many months refining the software.工程师们花了数月来完善这个软件。
  3. homogenise/ze [VT] 均质化 /həˈmɒdʒ.ɪ.naɪz/ usually disapproving, to change something so that all its parts or features become the same or very similar:TV has homogenized the culture and language of large parts of the planet.
  4. simultaneous adjective UK ​ /ˌsɪm.əlˈteɪ.ni.əs/ US ​ /ˌsaɪ.məlˈteɪ.ni.əs/
    ​C1 happening or being done at exactly the same time:There were several simultaneous explosions in different cities.
  5. furnace noun [ C ] UK ​ /ˈfɜː.nɪs/ US ​ /ˈfɝː.nɪs/
    a container that is heated to a very high temperature, so that substances that are put inside it, such as metal, will melt or burn熔炉
    People who work with furnaces in a steel factory need to wear protective clothing.钢厂里在熔炉边工作的人都需要穿防护服。
    This room’s like a furnace (= is very hot)!这个房间热得像熔炉!
    us a piece of equipment for heating a building暖气炉
    It’s cold in here – should I turn on the furnace?这里很冷——要不要我把暖气炉打开?
  6. deliver verb UK ​ /dɪˈlɪv.ər/ US ​ /dɪˈlɪv.ɚ/
    deliver verb (TAKE)
    ​B1 [ T ] to take goods, letters, parcels, etc. to people’s houses or places of work运送,递送,投递
    Mail is delivered to our office twice a day.邮差每天给我们办公室投递两次邮件。
    The furniture store is delivering our new bed on Thursday.家具店将在周四把我们的新床送来。
  7. relief n —-relieve verb UK ​ /rɪˈliːv/ US ​ /rɪˈliːv/
    relieve verb (MAKE BETTER)
    ​C2 [ T ] to make an unpleasant feeling, such as pain or worry, less strong缓解,减轻,解除(疼痛或担忧);使宽心,使宽慰
    She was given a shot of morphine to relieve the pain.医生给她注射了一针吗啡来止痛
    She relieved her boredom at home by learning how to type.她在家学打字来打发无聊的时光。
    ​[ T ] to improve an unpleasant situation缓和,缓解(令人不快的局势)
    New toll roads could help relieve congestion on other routes.新建的收费道路可以帮助缓解其他道路的拥堵情况。relief noun UK ​ /rɪˈliːf/ US ​ /rɪˈliːf/
    relief noun (HAPPINESS)
    ​B2 [ S or U ] a feeling of happiness that something unpleasant has not happened or has ended(不快过后的)宽慰,宽心,轻松,解脱
    [ + to infinitive ] It was such a relief to hear that Marta was found safe and well.听到玛尔塔安然无恙被找到,真是如释重负。After the exam, I felt an incredible sense of relief.考试过后,我感到轻松无比。”James can’t come tonight.” “Well, that’s a relief!”“詹姆斯今晚不能来了。”“噢,真是太好了!”
    to seek/find/provide relief from the heat/cold/pain/noise寻找/找到/提供避暑之地/暖和的地方/止痛的方法/清静之地

G: The principle of float glass is unchanged since 1950s, However, the product has changed dramatically, from a single thickness of 6.8 mm to a range from sub-millimetre to 25mm, from a ribbon frequently marred by inclusions and bubbles to almost optical perfection. To ensure the highest quality, inspection takes place at every stage. Occasionally, a bubble is not removed during refining, a sand grain refuses to melt, a tremor in the tin puts ripples涟漪 into the glass ribbon. Automated on-line inspection does two things. Firstly, it reveals process faults upstream that can be corrected. Inspection technology allows more than 100 million measurements a second to be made across the ribbon, locating flaws the unaided eye would be unable to see. Secondly, it enables computers downstream to steer cutters刀具 around flaws.

H: Float glass is sold by the square metre, and at the final stage computers translate customer requirement into patterns of cuts designed to minimise waste. 

  1. mar verb [ T ] UK ​ /mɑːr/ US ​ /mɑːr/ –rr– formal
    ​to spoil something, making it less good or less enjoyable损坏;破坏;损伤
    Sadly, the text is marred by careless errors.很遗憾,这篇文章因一些粗心大意的错误而大为减色。It was a really nice day, marred only by a little argument in the car on the way home. 一天过得非常不错,只是回家路上在汽车里发生的一点儿口角令人扫兴。I hope the fact that Louise isn’t coming won’t mar your enjoyment of the evening. 路易丝今晚不来了,我希望这不会使你扫兴。
  2. inclusion noun US ​ UK ​ /ɪnˈkluː.ʒən/
    ​C1 [ C or U ] the act of including someone or something as part of a group, list, etc., or a person or thing that is included把…包括(在内)
    She is being considered for inclusion in the Olympic team.正在考虑让她选入奥运会队。The book’s value stems from its inclusion of multiple viewpoints.这本书的价值源于它包括了不同的视点。Two last-minute inclusions are Jim and Ahmed.最后两名在期限到来前入选的是吉姆和艾哈默德
    ​[ U ] specialized education, social science the idea that everyone should be able to use the same facilities, take part in the same activities, and enjoy the same experiences, including people who have a disability or other disadvantage不排斥任何群体,包容
    The school has a strong culture of inclusion of students with special needs.这所学校有一种很强的包容有特殊需求学生的文化。
  3. inspect —- inspection noun [ C or U ] UK ​ /ɪnˈspek.ʃən/ US ​ /ɪnˈspek.ʃən/
    ​C1 the act of looking at something carefully, or an official visit to a building or organization to check that everything is correct and legal检查;视察
    Her passport seemed legitimate, but on closer inspection, it was found to have been altered.她的护照看似合法,但仔细检查,发现做过手脚。She arrived to carry out/make a health and safety inspection of the building.她来对大楼进行安全卫生检查。​
    us and australian english uk survey an examination of the structure of a building by a specially trained person鉴定,查勘(建筑物)

    inspect verb [ T ] UK ​ /ɪnˈspekt/ US ​ /ɪnˈspekt/
    ​C1 to look at something or someone carefully in order to discover information, especially about their quality or condition检查;审视
    After the crash both drivers got out and inspected their cars for damage.撞车后,两辆车的司机都下来检查各自的车有无损坏。She held the bank note up to the light and inspected it carefully.她举起钞票,对着光仔细检查。​
    to officially visit a place or a group of people in order to check that everything is correct and legal视察;检阅
    An official from the Department of Health will be inspecting the restaurant this afternoon.今天下午卫生部的一名官员要来视察这家餐馆。The King inspected the troops.国王检阅了部队。

  4. occasionally adverb UK ​ /əˈkeɪ.ʒən.əl.i/ /əˈkeɪʒ.nəl.i/ US ​ /əˈkeɪ.ʒən.əl.i/ /əˈkeɪʒ.nəl.i/
    ​B2 sometimes but not often偶尔,间或;有时
    I see him occasionally in town.我偶尔在城里见到他。Occasionally I’ll have a piece of chocolate, but it’s very rare.有时我会吃块巧克力,不过这种时候极少。
  5. tremor noun [ C ] UK ​ /ˈtrem.ər/ US ​ /ˈtrem.ɚ/
    ​a slight shaking movement in a person’s body, especially because of nervousness or excitement(尤指因紧张或兴奋)颤抖,发抖
    The disease mostly affects people over 50, causing paralysis and uncontrollable tremors.这种病主要发生在年过50的人身上,能引起瘫痪和难以自制的颤抖。There was a slight tremor in her voice.她的声音微微发颤。figurative A tremor of excitement went through the audience as he came on stage.他走上舞台时,观众兴奋得出现了一阵骚动。
    ​a slight earthquake轻微地震,小地震
    The tremor was felt as far as 200 miles away.这次小震的震中就在旧金山南部,200英里以外的地方都有震感。
  6. upstream adverb, adjective [ before noun ] UK ​ /ˌʌpˈstriːm/ US ​ /ˌʌpˈstriːm/
    ​(moving) on a river or stream towards its origin在上游(的);向上游(的);逆流(的)
    Salmon swim upstream against very strong currents to reach their breeding areas.大麻哈鱼会迎着湍急的水流游向上游它们的产卵区。
  7. breed verb UK ​ /briːd/ US ​ /briːd/ bred, bred
    breed verb (REPRODUCE)
    ​B2 [ T ] to keep animals for the purpose of producing young animals in a controlled way(为育种目的)饲养
    Terriers are bred for their fighting instincts.交配繁殖梗狗是为了保持它们好斗的本性。
    His main income comes from breeding cattle.他的主要收入来自养牛。
    [ I ] (of animals) to have sex and produce young animals(动物)交配繁殖
    The blackbird, like most birds, breeds in the spring.乌鸫和大多数鸟一样是在春天繁殖。
  8. aid [n, VT]—- unaided adjective, adverb UK ​ /ˌʌnˈeɪ.dɪd/ US ​ /ˌʌnˈeɪ.dɪd/
    ​without any help from anyone else; independently无外援(的);独立(的)
    Since his accident, he hasn’t been able to walk unaided.自从出了车祸后,他一直不能独自行走。The two explorers attempted an unaided walk across the South Pole.两位探险者试图独自徒步穿越南极点。











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