Ielts 8 – test2- R2

The little ice age

A: This book will provide a detailed examination调查 of the Little Ice Age and other climatic shifts, but before I embark on that, let me provide a historical context. We tend to think of climate – as opposed to weather – as something unchanging, yet humanity has been at the mercy of climate change for its entire existence, with at least eight glacial episodes冰川事件 in the past 730,000 years. Our ancestors adapted to the universal but irregular global warming since the end of the last great Ice Age, around 10,000 years ago, with dazzling opportunism. They developed strategies for surviving harsh drought cycles严酷的干旱周期, decades of heavy rainfall or unaccustomed cold; adopted agriculture and stockraising畜牧业, which revolutionised human life; and founded the world’s first pre-industrial civilisations in Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Americas. But the price of sudden climate change, in famine, disease and suffering, was often high.

  1. climatic shifts气候变化/转移; climate—-climatic adj.气候的。climatic adjective UK /klaɪˈmæt.ɪk/ US /klaɪˈmæt̬.ɪk/
    relating to general weather conditions气候的
    Some parts of the world seem to be experiencing climatic changes.世界上一些地区似乎正在经历气候变化。
  2. embark [I]    verb 着手;开始做  He’s embarking on a new career as a writer他即将开始新的职业生涯——当一名作家。verb 登(船);上(船)  They travelled to Portsmouth, where they embarked on the battle cruiser HMS Renown他们行至朴次茅斯,在那里登上了英国皇家海军“声望号”战列巡洋舰。
  3. be at the mercy of sb/sth   C2 to be in a situation where someone or something has complete power over you任凭…的摆布,完全受…的支配
    Poor people are increasingly at the mercy of money-lenders.穷人受放债人的摆布的情况日益严重。
  4. glacier—-glacial adjective UK /ˈɡleɪ.ʃəl/ US /ˈɡleɪ.ʃəl/
    glacial adjective (ICE/COLD)   made or left by a glacier由冰河形成的;冰川造成的
    glacial deposits冰川沉积
    extremely cold极冷的,冰冷的,冰一般的
    glacial temperatures极低的气温. a glacial period极寒冷的时期  glacier noun [ C ] UK /ˈɡlæs.i.ər/ US /ˈɡleɪ.si.ɚ/ a large mass of ice that moves slowly冰川,冰河
  5. episode noun [ C ] UK /ˈep.ɪ.səʊd/ US /ˈep.ə.soʊd/
    episode noun [ C ] (EVENT)  B2 a single event or group of related events事件;(相关的)一连串事件;一段经历
    This latest episode in the fraud scandal has shocked a lot of people.诈骗丑闻最新爆出的这一事件让很多人瞠目结舌。The drugs, the divorce, and the depression – it’s an episode in his life that he wants to forget.吸毒、离婚和消沉——这是他人生中不堪回首的一段经历。
    episode noun [ C ] (PART OF STORY)   B2 one of the single parts into which a story is divided, especially when it is broadcast on the television or radio(尤指电视或广播节目的)一集,一节,片断
  6. regular—–irregular
  7. dazzling adjective UK /ˈdæz.əl.ɪŋ/ US /ˈdæz.əl.ɪŋ/ C2 A dazzling light is so bright that you cannot see for a short time after looking at it.(光线)刺眼的,耀眼的,眩目的
    a dazzling white light一道刺眼的白光
    C2 extremely attractive or exciting光彩夺目的,靓丽的;令人眼花缭乱的
    dazzling good looks靓丽的容貌.  a dazzling smile灿烂的微笑.  a dazzling performance/ display精彩的表演/展示
  8. opportunity —- opportunism noun [ U ] UK /ˌɒp.əˈtʃuː.nɪ.zəm/ US /ˌɑː.pɚˈtuː.nɪ.zəm/  behaviour in which you use every situation to try to get power or an advantage机会主义
    political opportunism政治机会主义
  9. drought noun [ C or U ] UK /draʊt/ US /draʊt/
    C2 a long period when there is little or no rain久旱,旱灾
    This year (a) severe drought has ruined the crops.今年严重的旱灾把庄稼都给毁了。
  10. custom风俗,习俗;传统 —- accustomed—-unaccustomed adjective UK /ˌʌn.əˈkʌs.təmd/ US /ˌʌn.əˈkʌs.təmd/  [ after verb ] not familiar with something, or not used to something不习惯的;不适应的
    The weather presented a particular challenge, especially for soldiers unaccustomed to subarctic conditions.这种天气尤其对不适应亚北极地区气候的美国军人提出了特别的挑战。
    [ before noun ] not usual不寻常的
    The Olympic and world champion finished in the unaccustomed position of fourth.这位奥运会冠军和世界冠军表现失常,最后仅仅获得了第4名。accustomed adjective UK /əˈkʌs.təmd/ US /əˈkʌs.təmd/  C1 familiar with something习惯的;适应了的
    She quickly became accustomed to his messy ways.她很快就习惯了他的邋遢作风。
    I’m not accustomed to being treated like this.我不习惯别人这样待我。
    formal usual一贯的;惯常的
    She performed the task with her accustomed ease.她以一贯的轻松自如完成了任务。
    accustom yourself to sth — phrasal verb with accustom UK /əˈkʌs.təm/ US /əˈkʌs.təm/ verb  to make yourself familiar with new conditions使习惯于
    It’ll take time for me to accustom myself to the changes.我要一段时间后才能适应这些变化。
  11. stock-raising畜牧业; stock 股票,家畜

B: The Little Ice Age lasted from roughly 1300 until the middle of the nineteenth century. Only two centuries ago, Europe experienced a cycle of bitterly cold winters; mountain glaciers in the Swiss Alps were the lowest in recorded memory, and pack ice surrounded Iceland for much of the year. The climatic events of the Little Ice Age did more than help shape the modern world. They are the deeply important context for the current unprecedented global warming. The Little Ice Age was far from a deep freeze, however; rather an irregular seesaw交替 of rapid climatic shifts, few lasting more than a quarter-century, driven by complex and still little understood interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean. The seesaw brought cycles of intensely cloud winters and easterly winds, then switched abruptly to years of heavy spring and early summer rains, mild winters and frequent Atlantic storms, or to period of droughts, light northeasterly wind, and summer heat waves.

  1. bitterly adverb UK /ˈbɪt.ə.li/ US /ˈbɪt̬.ɚ.li/
    bitterly adverb (STRONG EMOTION)    in a way that shows strong negative emotion such as anger or disappointment愤怒地;痛苦地
    She wept bitterly at the news.她听到这个消息泣不成声。He was bitterly disappointed not to get the job.他没有得到这份工作,感到非常失望。
    bitterly adverb (COLD)
    bitterly cold: extremely and unpleasantly cold极其寒冷的
  2. pack 打包/收拾(行李) + verb (MASS) [ I or T, usually + adv/prep ] to (cause to) form into a solid mass(把…)压实,(使)堆积
    The wind has packed the snow against the garage door.风把雪吹到车库门口,积成了厚厚的一堆。The snow has packed down tightly, making the streets dangerous to walk on.雪积得很厚实,走在街上很容易出危险。
  3. precedent n.—- unprecedented adjective UK /ʌnˈpres.ɪ.den.tɪd/ US /ʌnˈpres.ə.den.t̬ɪd/   C2 never having happened or existed in the past史无前例的,空前的;绝无仅有的;     This century has witnessed environmental destruction on an unprecedented scale.环境在本世纪遭到了空前的破坏。precedent noun UK /ˈpres.ɪ.dənt/ US /ˈpres.ə.dent/   C2 [ C ] an action, situation, or decision that has already happened and can be used as a reason why a similar action or decision should be performed or made先例,前例;     There are several precedents for promoting people who don’t have formal qualifications.提拔没有正式学历的人是有几个先例的。Some politicians fear that agreeing to the concession would set a dangerous precedent.一些政客担心同意让步会开创危险的先例。
    [ U ] the way that something has been done in the past that therefore shows that it is the correct way惯例    Would it be breaking with precedent for the bride to make a speech?新娘发表讲话是否有悖于惯例?
    [ C ] specialized law a decision about a particular legal case that makes it likely that other similar cases will be decided in the same way(可援引的)先例,判例;   The judgment on pension rights has established/set a precedent.对养老金领取权的裁决成了一个判例。
  4. freeze: n. 严寒期,冰冻期;v (使)结冰/冻结
  5. seesaw noun [ C ] UK /ˈsiː.sɔː/ US /ˈsiː.sɑː/ us also teeter-totter  跷跷板
    seesaw verb [ I ] UK /ˈsiː.sɔː/ US /ˈsiː.sɑː/ to change repeatedly from one emotion, situation, etc. to another and then back again(情绪、局势等)摇摆不定,不断反复,交替
    His mind seesawed between hope and despair绝望 all through those weeks. 那几个星期里,他一会儿心怀希望,一会儿又感到绝望,心情变来变去。
  6. easterly adjective UK /ˈiː.stəl.i/ US /ˈiː.stɚ.li/in or towards the east, or blowing from the east向东方的;在东方的;东风的;      They were travelling in an easterly direction.他们当时正在向东行进。The town is in the most easterly part of the country.这个城镇位于该国的最东部。 easterly wind: a wind that blows from the east东风
    easterly noun [ C ] UK /ˈiː.stəl.i/ US /ˈiː.stɚ.li/东风; wind [U & C]
  7. intense adj. —-intensive adj.      intense adjective UK /ɪnˈtens/ US /ɪnˈtens/C1 extreme and forceful or (of a feeling) very strong强烈的,极度的
    intense cold/heat/hatred严寒/酷热/痛恨;    an intense flavour/colour浓烈的口味/浓重的颜色He suddenly felt an intense pain in his back.他突然觉得背部一阵剧痛。
    C2 Intense people are very serious, and usually have strong emotions or opinions.认真的;热切的;有强烈情感的;尖锐的;   an intense young man认真的年轻人
  8. winter verb [ I + adv/prep ] UK /ˈwɪn.tər/ US /ˈwɪn.t̬ɚ/
    (especially of a bird) to spend the winter in a particular place(尤指鸟类)过冬,越冬
    Birds migrate so that they can winter in a warmer country.鸟类定期迁徙,这样它们就可以在更暖和的地方过冬。A lot of older people from northern states winter in Florida or Arizona.科威特湾是世界上最重要的涉禽越冬地之一。
  9. switch noun/VI ot VT UK /swɪtʃ/ US /swɪtʃ/
    switch noun (DEVICE)开关
    a light switch电灯开关.  Can you flip the switch?你能打开那个开关吗?switch noun (CHANGE)  [ C ] a sudden or complete change, especially of one person or thing for another(尤指由此至彼地)突然改变,彻底改变;调换;转换
    switch verb [ T, I usually + adv/prep ] (DEVICE)   B1 to use a switch to change a device from one state or type of operation to another(用开关)打开,关闭,转换
    switch the TV off/on关/开电视
    switch verb [ T, I usually + adv/prep ] (CHANGE)(尤指由此至彼地)突然改变,彻底改变;调换;转换
    She started studying English, but switched to Law in her second year.她刚上大学时学的是英语,但二年级的时候她改学商务了。In 1971, Britain switched over (= changed completely) to a decimal currency.1971年,英国改用十进制货币。After the bank robbery, the gang switched cars (= left one car and got into another).抢劫银行后,匪徒们换了汽车。
  10. mild轻微的; 温柔的; 温暖的; 不浓的; 淡味麦芽啤酒; mild winter 暖冬
  11. Atlantic 英 [ət’læntɪk] 美 [ətˈlæntɪk]   adj. 在大西洋里的,近大西洋的     n. (the Atlantic)大西洋

C: Reconstructing the climate changes of the past is extremely difficult, because systematic weather observations began only a few centuries ago, in Europe and North America. Records from India and tropical热带的 Africa are even more recent. For the time before records began, we have only ‘proxy records代理记录/替代记录’ reconstructed largely from tree rings and ice cores, supplemented by a few incomplete written accounts账目. We now have hundreds of tree-ring records from throughout the northern hemisphere, and many from south of the equator, too, amplified with a growing body of temperature data from ice cores drilled in Antarctica, Greenland格林兰, the Peruvian Andes, and other locations. We are close to a knowledge of annual summer and winter temperature variations over much of the northern hemisphere going back 600 years.                                                                                                                            

  1. systematic adjective UK /ˌsɪs.təˈmæt.ɪk/ US /ˌsɪs.təˈmæt̬.ɪk/C2 according to an agreed set of methods or organized plan有条理的,有系统的,有计划的
    approving We’ve got to be more systematic in the way that we approach this task.我们完成这项任务的时候应该更有条理一些。disapproving We’re hearing reports of the systematic rape and torture of prisoners.我们听到一些报道说囚犯们受到蓄意强暴和折磨。
  2. Atlantic 大西洋; tree rings 年轮; ice cores冰芯;  Antarctic南极,南极的;
  3. supplement noun [ C ] UK /ˈsʌp.lɪ.mənt/ US /ˈsʌp.lə.mənt/  C2 something that is added to something else in order to improve it or complete it; something extra补充物,增补物        The doctor said she should be taking vitamin supplements.医生说她应该服用维生素补充剂。The money I get from teaching eveningnight classes provides a supplement to my main income.我晚上教课所挣的钱可以补充我的主要收入。We paid a supplement (= an extra amount of money) so that we could have a cabin on board the ship.我们多付了一些钱,这样我们在船上就可以有一个单独的小舱住了。
    a part of a magazine or newspaper, either produced separately or as part of the magazine or newspaper(杂志或报纸的)增刊,副刊        The newspaper publishes a sports supplement every Monday.这家报纸每周一出版一份体育副刊。
    an extra part of a book, either produced separately or included at the end of the book, containing information that was not available when the book was first published(书的)附录,补编,补遗        There is a supplement to the dictionary containing new words.这部词典有一个新词附录。
    supplement  verb [ T ] UK /ˈsʌp.lɪ.ment/ US /ˈsʌp.lə.ment/ C2 to add something to something to make it larger or better增加,补充,增补
    He supplements (= adds to) his income by working in a bar at night.他晚上在酒吧打工以增加收入。Some vegetarians like to supplement their diets with iron.有些素食主义者喜欢在饮食之外吃一些含铁的药片。
  4. sphere—–hemisphere noun [ C ] UK /ˈhem.ɪ.sfɪər/ US /ˈhem.ə.sfɪr/(尤指地球的)半球      the northern/southern hemisphere北/南半球
    specialized anatomy one of the two halves of the brain脑半球     the left/right hemisphere左/右脑半球
    half of a sphere (= ball shape)球体的一半
    The bush had been pruned into a perfect hemisphere.树丛被修剪成了一个完美的半球。

    sphere noun [ C ] UK /sfɪər/ US /sfɪr/
    sphere noun [ C ] (ROUND OBJECT) an object shaped like a round ball球,圆球;球状物       Doctors have replaced the top of his hip bone with a metal sphere.医生们用一个金属球替换了他的髋骨顶端。
    sphere noun [ C ] (AREA) C1 a subject or area of knowledge, work, etc.(知识、工作等的)范围,领域,圈,界;   the political sphere政界.  exchanges with other countries, particularly in cultural, scientific, and economic spheres与其他国家的交流,特别是文化、科学和经济领域的交流

  5. amplify verb [ T ] UK /ˈæm.plɪ.faɪ/ US /ˈæm.plə.faɪ/ to make something louder扩大,放大(声音)amplified music/guitar经过扩音的音乐/带有扩音设备的电吉他
    formal to increase the size or effect of something扩大;增强        A funeral can amplify the feelings of regret and loss for the relatives.葬礼可以渲染生者痛失亲人的哀悼之情。
  6. drill VS thrill;   drill  noun [ C ] UK /drɪl/ US /drɪl/
    drill noun [ C ] (TOOL)a tool or machine that makes holes钻;钻床;钻机
    an electric/pneumatic drill电/风钻; a dentist’s drill牙钻; a drill bit (= the sharp part of the drill that cuts the hole)钻头
    drill noun [ C ] (REGULAR ACTIVITY)an activity that practises a particular skill and often involves repeating the same thing several times, especially a military exercise intended to train soldiers(尤指军事)训练,练习 ~~~~~~practice.
    In some of these schools, army-style drills are used to instil a sense of discipline.这些学校中有一些利用军训来培养纪律观念。
    a spelling/pronunciation drill 拼写/发音练习

    thrill  noun [ C ] UK /θrɪl/ US /θrɪl/C1 a feeling of extreme excitement, usually caused by something pleasant兴奋;激动;紧张感
    the thrill of winning a competition赢得比赛的激动. So why do people still go hunting – is it the thrill of the chase?那么为什么人们还去打猎——是不是因为追捕猎物让人感到兴奋刺激?
    It gave me a real thrill to see her again after so many years.这么多年以后与她重逢,着实令我激动。The video shows the thrills and spills (= excitement and accidents) of motor racing.录像呈现了紧张刺激的赛车场面。
    thrill verb [ I or T ] UK /θrɪl/ US /θrɪl/ C2 to make someone feel very excited and pleased兴奋;激动;紧张感
    The 22-year-old swimmer thrilled the world with his performance.巴列斯特罗斯以其精湛的球技震动了高尔夫球界。

  7. determine verb UK /dɪˈtɜː.mɪn/ US /dɪˈtɝː.mɪn/
    determine verb (DECIDE) C1 [ T often passive ] to control or influence something directly, or to decide what will happen确定,决定;影响
    The number of staff we can take on will be determined by how much money we’re allowed to spend.我们雇用的人数将取决于可支配资金的多少。Your health is determined in part by what you eat.在某种程度上你的健康状况取决于你的饮食。Eye colour is genetically adv.遗传上的 determined.眼睛的颜色是由遗传基因决定的。People should be allowed to determine their own future.应该允许人们决定自己的未来。
    [ T ] formal to make a strong decision下决心
    [ + that ] She determined that one day she would be an actor.她决心将来当演员。
    [ + to infinitive ] On leaving jail, Joe determined to reform.出狱后乔决心改过自新。
    determine verb (DISCOVER)C1 [ T ] formal to discover the facts or truth about something找出,确定,测定;查明
    The police never actually determined the cause of death.警方实际上从未查明死因。[ + question word ] It is the responsibility of the court to determine whether these men are innocent.确定这些人是否无辜是法庭的责任。[ + that ] The jury 陪审团 determined that the men were guilty感到内疚的/有罪的.陪审团裁决那些人有罪。

D: This book is a narrative history of climatic shifts during the past ten centuries, and some of the ways in which people in Europe adapted to them. Part One describes the Medieval Warm Period, roughly 900 to 1200. During these three centuries, Norse北欧海盗的 voyagers from Northern Europe explored northern seas, settled Greenland, and visited North America. It was not a time of uniform warmth, for then, as always since the Great Ice Age, there were constant shifts in rainfall and temperature. Mean平均 European temperatures were about the same as today, perhaps slightly cooler. 

  1. narrative noun [ C or U ] UK /ˈnær.ə.tɪv/ US /ˈner.ə.t̬ɪv/ formal C2 a story or a description of a series of events故事;叙述    It’s a moving narrative of wartime adventure.这是对战时经历的感人描述。a first-person/third-person narrative第一人称/第三人称叙述。 a gripping/compelling narrative引人入胜/令人信服的故事。
    a particular way of explaining or understanding events(对事件的特定的)陈述
    There was pressure on academics to construct narratives of the period that were positive.学者们面临压力,要对这一段时间的事件构建一个正面的陈述。
    Both sides in the conflict have a narrative of victimhood.冲突双方都从受害者角度陈述事件。the grand narratives of nation, race, and faith对国家、种族和信仰的宏大陈述
    narrative adjective UK US telling a story叙述的,讲故事式的
    a narrative poem叙述诗
  2. medieval adjective also mediaeval UK /ˌmed.iˈiː.vəl/ US /ˌmed.iˈiː.vəl/
    B2 related to the Middle Ages (= the period in European history from about AD 600 to AD 1500)中世纪(约公元600年至1500年间)的,中古时代的
    a medieval building/painting/town中世纪建筑/画作/城镇。a medieval manuscript中世纪的手稿
  3. approximately ~~~~ roughly adverb UK /ˈrʌf.li/ US /ˈrʌf.li/
    roughly adverb (NOT EXACTLY)B2 approximately大致地,近似地,粗略地
    There has been an increase of roughly 2.25 million.大概增长了225万。
    Roughly speaking, it’s 2.25 million.大致来说,有225万。
    We have roughly similar tastes/roughly the same tastes.我们的口味大致相同。
  4. voyager noun [ C ] UK /ˈvɔɪ.ɪ.dʒər/ US /ˈvɔɪ.ɪ.dʒɚ/a person who goes on a long and sometimes dangerous journey航海者;远航者
    Those voyagers who first ventured n.v.冒险 into space certainly showed courage. 那些首次尝试进入太空的航天者确实显示出了勇气。
  5. adventure —- venture [VI or VT]. noun [ C ] UK /ˈven.tʃər/ US /ˈven.tʃɚ/C2 a new activity, usually in business, that involves risk or uncertainty(有风险的)企业;投机活动;商业冒险;      She advised us to look abroad for more lucrative business ventures.她建议我们去国外寻找更有利可图的商业机会。There are many joint ventures between American and Japanese companies.有许多美日合资企业。venture verb [ I usually + adv/prep, T ] UK /ˈven.tʃər/ US /ˈven.tʃɚ/ formal
    C2 to risk going somewhere or doing something that might be dangerous or unpleasant, or to risk saying something that might be criticized冒险去(或做);冒昧地说
    She rarely ventured outside, except when she went to stock up on groceries.她极少冒险外出,除非要去街角的商店采购杂货。As we set off into the forest, we felt as though we were venturing (forth) into the unknown.当我们动身进入那片森林时,感觉自己似乎正在冒险进入一个未知的世界。She tentatively ventured the opinion that the project would be too expensive to complete, but the boss ignored her.她有些犹豫但还是斗胆进言,认为完成那个项目花费太高,但老板不予理睬。
  6. uniform noun [ C or U ] UK /ˈjuː.nɪ.fɔːm/ US /ˈjuː.nə.fɔːrm/制服
    military/school uniform军装/校服.  a nurse’s uniform护士服
    I love a man in uniform! 我喜欢男人穿制服的样子!
    [ C ] a type of clothes that is connected with a particular group of people(某一群体的人穿的)典型服装,特有服装
    Photographs show him wearing the T-shirt and ripped jeans that were the student’s uniform of the time.照片上的他穿着当时的校服,就是那种脏兮兮的T恤和牛仔裤。
    uniform adjective UK /ˈjuː.nɪ.fɔːm/ US /ˈjuː.nə.fɔːrm/the same; not changing or different in any way 相同的;一律的;整齐划一的
    The office walls and furniture are a uniform grey.和你看到的很多办公室一样,墙壁和家具一律都是灰色的。Small businesses are demanding that they receive uniform treatment from the banks. 小企业要求银行给予它们一视同仁的待遇。

E: It is known that the Little Ice Age cooling began in Greenland and the Arctic in about 1200. As the Arctic ice pack spread southward, Norse voyages to the west were rerouted into the open Atlantic, then ended altogether. Storminess increased in the North Atlantic and North Sea. Colder, much wetter weather descended蔓延 on Europe between 1315 and 1319, when thousands perished丧生 in a continent-wide famine. By 1400, the weather had become decidedly more unpredictable and stormier, with sudden shifts and lower temperatures that culminated in the cold decades of the late sixteenth century. Fish were a vital commodity in growing towns and cities, where food supplies were a constant concern. Dried cod鳕鱼 and herring鲱鱼 were already the staples of the European fish trade, but changes in water temperatures forced fishing fleets to work further offshore. The Basques, Dutch, and English developed the first offshore fishing boats adapted to a colder and stormier Atlantic. A gradual agricultural revolution in northern Europe stemmed from concerns over food supplies at a time of rising populations. The revolution involved intensive密集的 commercial farming商业耕作 and the growing of animal fodder动物饲料 on land not previously used for crops. The increased productivity from farmland made some countries self-sufficient自给自足 in grain and livestock and offered effective protection against famine.

  1. Atlantic 大西洋/大西洋的—- Antarctic南极/南极的 —-Arctic 北极/北极的
  2. “I’ll reach there in about 5 minutes. 大约5分钟  “in” is used to indicate a period of time (“5 minutes”), and “about” in this case means “approximately.” So the sentence is, “The period of time it will take me to reach there will be approximately 5 minutes.”
  3. descend verb UK ​ /dɪˈsend/ US ​ /dɪˈsend/
    descend verb (POSITION)B2 [ I or T ] formal to go or come down下降;走下;降下
    The path descended steeply into the valley.这条路很陡,一直通到山谷。Jane descended the stairs.简走下了楼梯。
    ​[ I ] literary If darkness or night descends, it becomes dark and day changes to night.(暮色)降临;(天幕)落下
    descend verb (NEGATIVE MOOD)[ I ] literary If a negative or bad feeling descends, it is felt everywhere in a place or by everyone at the same time.(不好的感觉)遍布,蔓延
    A feeling of despair descended (on us) as we realized that we were lost.当我们发现自己迷了路的时候,一种绝望的情绪(在我们中间)弥漫开来。
    ​[ I ] literary If a condition, usually a negative condition, descends, it quickly develops in every part of a place.(通常指不好的情形)笼罩
    Silence descended on the room/over the countryside.寂静笼罩着房间/田野。
  4. perish verb [ I ] UK ​ /ˈper.ɪʃ/ US ​ /ˈper.ɪʃ/
    perish verb [ I ] (DIE) to die, especially in an accident or by being killed, or to be destroyed(尤指因事故或遇害)丧生,死亡;消亡;毁灭
    Three hundred people perished in the earthquake.300人在此次地震中丧生。He believes that Europe must create closer ties or it will perish. 他认为整个欧洲必须建立更紧密的联系,否则就会灭亡。
    perish verb [ I ] (DECAY) uk If material such as rubber or leather perishes, it decays and starts to break into pieces.(橡胶、皮革等)脆裂,老化
    Sunlight has caused the rubber to perish. 橡胶因暴露于阳光下而老化。
  5. decidedly adverb UK ​ /dɪˈsaɪ.dɪd.li/ US ​ /dɪˈsaɪ.dɪd.li/​certainly and obviously确切地;明显地;     He was decidedly careful about what he told me.他对跟我说的那些话显然非常小心谨慎。An agreement is looking decidedly difficult according to the newspapers.据报纸报道,达成协议显然非常困难。
  6. storm—-stormy—stormier;  stormy adjective UK ​ /ˈstɔː.mi/ US ​ /ˈstɔːr.mi/
    stormy adjective (VIOLENT WEATHER)B2 with strong wind, heavy rain, and often thunder and lightning风暴;暴风雨
    stormy weather暴风雨天气. The sky was dark and stormy.天空阴沉,暴风雨即将来临。
    stormy adjective (EMOTIONAL REACTION)C1 involving a lot of strong argument and shouting猛烈的;激烈的;争吵的;群情激愤的
    a stormy debate激烈的辩论.  They had a passionate and often stormy relationship.
    他们两人的关系充满激情,但又冲突不断。

    storm noun UK ​ /stɔːm/ US ​ /stɔːrm/
    storm noun (VIOLENT WEATHER)A2 [ C ] an extreme weather condition with very strong wind, heavy rain, and often thunder and lightning风暴;暴风雨
    A lot of trees were blown down in the recent storms.在最近的暴风雨中许多树木被刮倒。
    They’re still cleaning up the storm damage.他们还在清理风暴留下的残局。

  7. culminate in/with sth ​ If an event or series of events culminates in something, it ends with it, having developed until it reaches this point.以…告终;达到…的顶点
    My arguments with the boss got worse and worse, and finally culminated in my resignation辞职.我和老板的争吵日益恶化,直到最终我决定换工作。
    Their many years of research have finally culminated in a cure for the disease. 经过多年研究,他们终于开发出一种能治愈该病的药物。
  8. commodity noun [ C ] UK ​ /kəˈmɒd.ə.ti/ US ​ /kəˈmɑː.də.t̬i/C1 a substance or product that can be traded, bought, or sold商品,货物
    The country’s most valuable commodities include tin and diamonds.该国最有价值的商品包括锡和钻石。the international commodities market国际商品市场
    ​a valuable quality宝贵品质     If you’re going into teaching, energy is a necessary commodity.如果你要干教师这一行,必须要有充沛的精力。
  9. staple noun [ C ] UK ​ /ˈsteɪ.pəl/  staple noun [ C ] (WIRE)​订书钉
    staple [C] (BASIC)a main product or part of something主要产品,或某物的主要部分;  Shortages mean that even staples (= basic foods) like bread are difficult to find.物资短缺意味着连面包之类的主食都难觅踪影。Phospate has been a staple of this area for many years. 磷酸盐多年来一直是这一地区的主要产品。Romantic fiction and reference books are a staple of many public libraries.言情小说和工具书是很多公共图书馆的主要藏书。
    staple adjective [ before noun ] UK ​ /ˈsteɪ.pəl/ US ​ /ˈsteɪ.pəl/basic or main; standard or regular基本的,主要的;标准的,常规的;      The staple diet here is mutton, fish and boiled potatoes.这里以羊肉、鱼和煮马铃薯为主食。Prices of staple foods such as wheat and vegetables have also been increasing.小麦、蔬菜等主要食品的价格也一直在上涨。Her latest film is the staple offering of action and comedy that we have come to expect.她的最新影片,如同我们所预料的一样,又是常规的动作加喜剧。
    staple verb [ T ] UK ​ /ˈsteɪ.pəl/ US ​ /ˈsteɪ.pəl/​to fasten something using staples用钉书钉钉住;      Would you mind stapling the reports together?你能把报告用订书钉订好吗?
  10. fleet noun [ C ] UK ​ /fliːt/ US ​ /fliːt/
    fleet noun [ C ] (SHIPS) C1 a group of ships, or all of the ships in a country’s navy船队;(一国的)全部舰队,海军
    a fleet of 20 sailing ships一支由20艘帆船组成的船队.  a fishing fleet捕鱼船队
    The entire Spanish fleet was defeated within 6 hours. 西班牙海军在六个小时内全军覆没。
  11. stem from sth — phrasal verb with stem UK ​ /stem/ US ​ /stem/ verb [ T ] -mm-
    ​C1 to start or develop as the result of something源自;由…造成
    Her problems stem from her difficult childhood.她的问题主要是由艰难的童年生活造成的。Their disagreement stemmed from a misunderstanding.他们的分歧源自误会。
  12. stock—-livestock 家畜。

F: Global temperatures began to rise slowly after 1850, with the beginning of the Modern Warm Period. There was a vast migration from Europe by land-hungry farmers and others, to which the famine caused by the Irish potato blight爱尔兰马铃薯疫病 contributed, to North America, Australia, New Zealand, and southern Africa. Millions of hectares公顷 of forest and woodland fell before the newcomers’ axes斧头 between 1850 and 1890, as intensive European farming methods expanded across the world. The unprecedented land clearance released vast quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, triggering for the first time humanly caused global warming. Temperatures climbed more rapidly in the twentieth century as the use of fossil fuels proliferated and greenhouse gas levels continued to soar. The rise has been even steeper since the early 1980s. The Little Ice Age has given way to a new climatic regime体系, marked by prolonged and steady warming. At the same time, extreme weather events like Category 5 hurricanes [C]飓风 are becoming more frequent.

  1. soar verb UK ​ /sɔːr/ US ​ /sɔːr/
    soar verb (RISE QUICKLY)  [ I usually + adv/prep ] to rise very quickly to a high level猛增,骤升    All night long fireworks soared into the sky.整个晚上焰火不断地升入高空。Temperatures will soar over the weekend, say the weather forecasters.天气预报员说,周末气温会骤升至80多华氏度。House prices soared a further 20 percent.房价又蹿升了20%。
    ​C2 [ T ] to reach a great height升至(很高的高度),高达
    The highest peak in the range soars 15,771 feet into the sky.这一山脉的最高峰高耸入云,海拔达15771英尺。
  2. steep adjective UK ​ /stiːp/ US ​ /stiːp/
    steep adjective (NOT GRADUAL)B1 (of a slope) rising or falling at a sharp angle(斜坡)陡的,陡峭的
    a steep slope陡坡.  It’s a steep climb to the top of the mountain, but the view is worth it.爬上山顶的路非常陡,不过风景非常好,值得一爬。
    The castle is set on a steep hill/hillside.城堡坐落在陡峭的山/山坡上。
    ​C1 A steep rise or fall is one that goes very quickly from low to high or from high to low.(上升或下降)急剧的,大起大落的
    There has been a steep increase/rise in prices. 物价飞涨。
  3. regime noun [ C ] UK ​ /reɪˈʒiːm/ US ​ /reɪˈʒiːm/
    regime noun [ C ] (MANAGEMENT)C2 mainly disapproving a particular government or a system or method of government政府;政权;政体
    The old corrupt, totalitarian regime was overthrown.腐败的旧极权政府被推翻。​
    a particular way of operating or organizing a business, etc.组织方法;管理体制;体系
    The regime in this office is hard work and more hard work.该事务所的管理方式是让人努力再努力。
  4. prolong vt.—-prolonged adj.持续时间很长的     prolong  verb [ T ] UK ​ /prəˈlɒŋ/ US ​ /prəˈlɑːŋ/  C1 to make something last a longer time延长,拖延
    We were having such a good time that we decided to prolong our stay by another week.我们过得非常愉快,决定再多呆一个星期。She chewed each delicious mouthful as slowly as she could, prolonging the pleasure.她细嚼慢咽,尽情地享受每一口美味食品。
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