1. unravel verb UK /ʌnˈræv.əl/ US /ʌnˈræv.əl/ -ll- or us usually -l-
    unravel verb (CLOTH)[ I or T ] If a piece of knitted or woven cloth, a knot, or a mass of thread unravels, it separates into a single thread, and if you unravel it, you separate it into a single thread.(把布、结或线团)解开;拆散
    You’d better mend that hole before the whole sweater starts to unravel.你最好把那个洞补上,免得整件毛衣脱线。I had to unravel one of the sleeves because I realized I’d knitted it too small.我不得不拆掉一只袖子,因为我发现它织得太小了。
    unravel verb (SUBJECT)[ I or T ] If you unravel a mysterious, unknown, or complicated subject, you make it known or understood, and if it unravels, it becomes known or understood.揭开,弄清,阐明(谜团或复杂问题);被澄清;被解
    We have a long way to go before we unravel the secrets of genetics.在揭开遗传学之谜前,我们还有很长的路要走。
    unravel verb (PROCESS)[ I, T usually passive ] If a process or achievement that was slow and complicated unravels or is unravelled, it is destroyed.破坏(成就等)
    As talks between the leaders broke down, several months of careful diplomacy were unravelled.由于领导人之间的会谈破裂,几个月精心策划的外交努力付诸东流。
  2. vanish verb [ I ] UK /ˈvæn.ɪʃ/ US /ˈvæn.ɪʃ/ B2 to disappear or stop being present or existing, especially in a sudden, surprising way(尤指突然)消失,灭绝
    The child vanished while on her way home from school.那个小女孩在放学回家的路上不见了。We ran out after the thief, but he had vanished into thin air (= had completely disappeared).我们冲出商店,拼命追赶,但小偷已经消失得无影无踪。Cheap rural housing is vanishing in the south of the country.廉价的乡间住房在该国南部行将绝迹。

Striking back at lightning with lasers

Seldom is the weather more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike.倒装 Their electrical fury inflicts death or serious injury on around 500 people each year in the United States alone. As the clouds roll in, a leisurely round of golf can become a terrifying dice with death – out in the open, a lone golfer maybe a lightning bolt’s most inviting target. And there is damage to property too. Lightning damage costs American power companies more than $100 million a year.

  1. laser noun [ C ] UK /ˈleɪ.zər/ US /-zɚ/ 激光(器)
    laser beam激光束.   laser surgery激光手术
  2. bolt noun [ C ] (LIGHTNING)a flash of lightning that looks like a white line against the sky闪电,霹雳
    The house next to ours was struck by a bolt of lightning.我们隔壁的房子被闪电击中了。
  3. dice noun [ C ] UK /daɪs/ US /daɪs/ plural dice
    dice noun [ C ] (GAME)骰子
    We need two dice to play the game.玩这个游戏我们需要两个骰子。You roll/throw the dice and whoever gets the highest score goes first.你们掷骰子吧,谁的点数最大谁就先开始。
    [ U ] any game involving chance in which dice are thrown掷骰子类游戏
    Let’s play dice.我们来玩掷骰子吧。
  4. inflict verb [ T ] UK /ɪnˈflɪkt/ US /ɪnˈflɪkt/to force someone to experience something very unpleasant使遭受,使承受
    These new bullets are capable of inflicting massive injuries.这些新型子弹可以造成重创。The suffering inflicted on these children was unimaginable.这些孩子遭受的痛苦无法想象。
  5. fury noun [ S or U ] UK /ˈfjʊə.ri/ US /ˈfjʊr.i/C2 extreme anger暴怒,狂怒
    He could hardly contain his fury.他几乎克制不住自己的愤怒。She flew into a fury at the suggestion.这个建议使她勃然大怒。
  6. lightning noun [ U ] UK /ˈlaɪt.nɪŋ/ US /ˈlaɪt.nɪŋ/ B1 a flash of bright light in the sky that is produced by electricity moving between clouds or from clouds to the ground闪电
    thunder and lightning 雷电.   a flash/bolt of lightning 一道闪电. That tree was struck by lightning.那棵树被闪电击中了。She changed her clothes with lightning speed (= extremely quickly).她飞快地换了衣服。
  7. strike —-striking strike verb UK /straɪk/ US /straɪk/ struck, struck
    strike verb (STOP WORK)B2 [ I ]罢工
    Democratization has brought workers the right to strike and join a trade union.民主化赋予工人罢工和加入工会的权利。We’re striking for better pay and improved safety standards.我们举行罢工,要求减少每周工作时间并提高安全标准。
    strike verb (CAUSE SUFFERING)C2 [ I or T ]突然侵袭;使受折磨;使遭受重创
    I have a life insurance policy that will take care of my family if disaster strikes.我有人寿保险,这样即使灾难降临,我的家人也会有保障。The disease has struck the whole community, sometimes wiping out whole families.疾病袭击了整个社区,有时整个家庭都无一生还。They predict that a large earthquake will strike the west coast before the end of the decade.他们预测这个10年内东海岸就会发生一场大地震。
    strike verb (HIT)B1 [ I or T ] 击,打;撞击;碰撞;攻击
    Her car went out of control and struck an oncoming vehicle.她的汽车失控,撞上了迎面开来的一辆车。The police have warned the public that the killer could strike again.警方提醒公众杀手可能会再次下手。The autopsy revealed that his murderer had struck him on the head with an iron bar.尸体解剖显示,杀手用一根铁棍猛击了他的头部。Have you ever been struck by lightning?你被闪电击中过吗?striking adjective UK /ˈstraɪ.kɪŋ/ US /ˈstraɪ.kɪŋ/B2 very unusual or easily noticed, and therefore attracting a lot of attention异乎寻常的,惊人的;引人注目的
    She bears a striking resemblance to her mother.她酷似她母亲。There’s a striking contrast between what he does and what he says he does.他的所作所为和他所说的话大相径庭。
    The library is a striking example of modern architecture.圣彼得教堂是教会复兴风格建筑的典范之作。There are striking similarities between the two cases.两起案件之间有惊人的相似之处。
    more attractive than usual妩媚动人的;很有魅力的
    He’s good-looking, but he’s not as striking as his brother.他长得很不错,但还不像他弟弟那么有魅力。
  8. seldom adverb UK /ˈsel.dəm/ US /ˈsel.dəm/B2 almost never很少;几乎从来没有
    Now that we have a baby, we seldom get the chance to go to the cinema.有了孩子以后,我们很少有机会看电影了。formal Seldom do we receive any apology when mistakes are made.出错的时候,我们很少听到道歉的话语。以動作頻率頻繁程度來分:
    2.often (常常)
    3.usually (通常)
    3.sometimes (有時候)
    4. seldom(很少)
    5. never (從不)
  9. 英语部分倒装用法归纳
  10. storm 风暴;暴风雨—- storm cloud暴风云,暴雨云—-a rainstorm暴风雨; a sandstorm沙暴; a snowstorm暴风雪; a thunderstorm雷暴; a windstorm风暴

But researchers in the United States and Japan are planning to hit back. Already in laboratory trials they have tested strategies for neutralising the power of thunderstorms, and this winter they will brave adj./v. real storms, equipped with an armoury of lasers that they will be pointing towards the heavens to discharge thunderclouds before lightning can strike.

  1. In order to further study the charging and discharge in thunderstorm by combining of numerical simulation, recent developments in the area of thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharge are reviewed in this paper.本论文的主要目的是为了利用数值模拟手段对雷暴云内起电和放电做进一步研究
    discharge verb UK /dɪsˈtʃɑːdʒ/ US /dɪsˈtʃɑːrdʒ/
    discharge verb (ALLOW TO LEAVE) [ T ] to allow someone officially to leave somewhere, especially a hospital or a law court允许…离开;(尤指)允许…出院;(根据法庭决议)释放
    Patients were discharged from the hospital because the beds were needed by other people.由于其他人需要床位,患者们便被允许出院了。More than half of all prisoners discharged are reconvicted within two years.在获释的犯人中有一半多在两年内又被再次判刑。
    uk A peace protester was conditionally discharged for twelve months (= allowed to go free only if they do not commit a crime again for this period of time).一个和平抗议者被有条件假释12个月。
    discharge verb (SEND OUT) [ I or T ] to send out a substance, especially waste liquid or gas排放,排出(尤指废液或废气)
    Large amounts of dangerous waste are discharged daily by the factory.这个工厂每天排放大量的危险性废物。The oil that discharged into the sea seriously harmed a lot of birds and animals.排放到海里的油对许多鸟和动物产生了严重的危害。
  2. armoury noun uk us armory UK /ˈɑː.mər.i/ US /ˈɑːr.mɚ.i/
    [ C ] all the weapons and military equipment that a country owns(一个国家的所有)武器装备.         The two countries signed an agreement to reduce their nuclear armouries.两国签署了削减核武器的协议。
    [ C ] a place where weapons and other military equipment are stored军械库;武器库
    Fighter planes have successfully bombed the enemy’s main armoury.战斗机成功炸毁了敌人的主要武器库。
    [ C usually singular ] things or qualities that can be used to achieve a particular aim宝库;锦囊.            The only weapon left in his armoury was indifference.他剩下的唯一法宝就是摆出一副无所谓的样子。
  3. indifference noun [ U ] UK /ɪnˈdɪf.ər.əns/ US /ɪnˈdɪf.ɚ.əns/
    C2 lack of interest in someone or something不感兴趣的;不关心的,冷淡的
    Many native speakers of a language show indifference to/towards grammatical points.许多人都不关注其母语的语法。His attitude was one of bored indifference.他的态度既不耐烦又漠不关心。
  4. brave verb [ T ] UK /breɪv/ US /breɪv/to deal with an unpleasant or difficult situation勇敢面对;冒(风险)
    Let’s brave the snow and go for a walk (= go for a walk even though it is snowing).我们冒雪去散步好吗?literary She braved the wrath of her parents by refusing to marry the man they had chosen.她不顾父母的不满,拒绝与他们选中的男人结婚。
  5. neutral —– neutralize verb [ T ] uk usually neutralise UK /ˈnjuː.trə.laɪz/ US /ˈnuː.trə.laɪz/
    neutralize verb [ T ] (STOP EFFECT)to stop something from having an effect抵消,使失效;                to neutralize an acid/odour中和酸/祛味. The aerial bombardments have neutralized the threat of artillery attacks on allied ground forces. 空袭压制了炮火,减轻了盟军地面部队受到的威胁。
    neutralize verb [ T ] (CHEMISTRY/ELECTRICITY)to make something neutral n. 中立者/国adj. 中立的   使中立;使中和
    Acidity in soil can be neutralized by spreading lime on it.在土壤上面撒石灰可以中和其酸性。
  6. pilot plant; plant noun UK /plɑːnt/ US /plænt/(BUILDING/MACHINES)[ U ] machines used in industry机器,设备
    The industry was accused of having invested little in workers, plant, or infrastructure.工业界被指责在工人、工厂和基础设施方面投入太少。
    [ C ] a factory in which a particular product is made or power is produced工厂
    Two more car-assembly plants were closed by the strike.另有两家汽车装配厂因罢工而关闭。
  7. pilot adjective [ before noun ] UK /ˈpaɪ.lət/ US /ˈpaɪ.lət/A pilot plan, product, or system is used to test how good something is before introducing it.试验性的,试点的
    If the pilot scheme is successful, many more homes will be offered the new television service.如果试验计划成功,会有越来越多的家庭享受到新的电视服务。
  8. trial noun UK /traɪəl/ US /traɪəl/
    trial noun (LEGAL PROCESS)B2 [ C or U ] 审判,审理
    trial proceedings审判程序。 Trial by jury is a fundamental right.由陪审团审判是一项基本权利。It was a very complicated trial that went on for months.该审判非常复杂,历时数月。She’s going on/standing trial for fraud.她将因诈骗而受审。
    trial noun (TEST)C1 [ C or U ] 试验;试用 VS pilot
    They’re doing clinical trials on a new drug.他们正在对一种新药进行临床试验。
    They’ve employed her for a six-month trial (period).他们录用了她,试用期为6个月。
    You can have the equipment on a trial basis (uk also on trial), and if you don’t like it you can give it back.你买他们的任何园艺设备都可以试用,如果不喜欢可以退货。
  9. jury noun [ C, + sing/pl verb ] UK /ˈdʒʊə.ri/ US /ˈdʒʊr.i/ B2陪审团
    members of the jury陪审团成员. The jury has/have been unable to return a verdict (= reach a decision).陪审团未能作出裁决

The idea of forcing storm clouds to discharge their lightning on command is not new. In the early 1960s, researchers tried firing rockets trailing wires into thunderclouds to set up an easy discharge path for the huge electric charges that these clouds generate. The technique survives to this day at a test site in Florida run by the University of Florida, with support from the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), based in California. EPRI, which is funded by power companies, is looking at ways to protect the United States’ power grid from lightning strikes. ‘We can cause the lightning to strike where we want it to using rockets’: says Ralph Bernstein, manager of lightning projects at EPRI. The rocket site is providing precise measurements of lightning voltages and allowing engineers to check how electrical equipment bears up.

  1. trail VS trial (noun);trail noun UK /treɪl/ US /treɪl/
    trail noun (PATH) B2 [ C ] a path through a countryside, mountain, or forest area, often made or used for a particular purpose乡间小道(常用于某一特定用途)
    a forest/mountain trail林间/山间小道
    a walking/snowshoeing/cross-country skiing trail
  2. voltage noun [ C or U ] UK /ˈvɒl.tɪdʒ/ US /ˈvoʊl.t̬ɪdʒ/ the force of an electric current, measured in volts电压;伏特数
    high/low voltages 高/低电压
  3. bear up — phrasal verb with bear UK /beər/ US /ber/ verb bore, borne or us also born
    to deal with a very sad or difficult situation in a brave and determined way勇敢地支撑下去,咬紧牙关坚持
    “How has she been since the funeral?” “Oh, she’s bearing up.”“葬礼以后她怎么样了?”“哦,她一直在挺着。”

Bad behaviour
But while rockets are fine for research, they cannot provide the protection from lightning strikes that everyone is looking for. The rockets cost around $1,200 each, can only be fired at a limited frequency and their failure rate is about 40 per cent. And even when they do trigger lightning, things still do not always go according to plan. ‘Lightning is not perfectly well behaved: says Bernstein. ‘Occasionally, it will take a branch分支 and go someplace it wasn’t supposed to go.’

And anyway, who would want to fire streams of rockets in a populated area? ‘What goes up must come down,’ points out Jean-Claude Diels of the University of New Mexico. Diels is leading a project, which is backed支持 by EPRI, to try to use lasers to discharge lightning safely — and safety is a basic requirement since no one wants to put themselves or their expensive equipment at risk. With around $500,000 invested so far, a promising system is just emerging from the laboratory.

  1.  a populated area;人口稠密的地区

The idea began some 20 years ago, when high-powered lasers were revealing their ability to extract electrons out of atoms and create ions. If a laser could generate a line of ionisation电离 in the air all the way up to a storm cloud, this conducting path could be used to guide lightning to Earth, before the electric field becomes strong enough to break down the air in an uncontrollable surge. To stop the laser itself being struck击中, it would not be pointed straight at the clouds. Instead, it would be directed at a mirror, and from there into the sky. The mirror would be protected by placing lightning conductors避雷针 close by. Ideally, the cloud-zapper (gun) would be cheap enough to be installed around all key power installations, and portable enough to be taken to international sporting events to beam up at brewing storm clouds.

  1. brew verb (BAD SITUATION) [ I ] If an unpleasant situation or a storm is brewing, you feel that it is about to happen.(坏事或暴风雨)即将来临,酝酿
    It was too quiet – I felt that trouble was brewing.太安静了——我觉得要出事了。
    A storm was brewing in the distance.远处一场暴风雨即将来临。
  2. zapper noun [ C ] UK /ˈzæp.ər/ US /ˈzæp.ɚ/ informal,  a device for controlling a machine from a distance 遥控器。
    Use the zapper to turn off the TV.用遥控器关掉电视。
    a device that kills or gets rid of something, especially by using electricity电灭(虫等)器.      a fly zapper
  3. control—uncontrol—-controllable.
  4. ion noun [ C ] UK /ˈaɪ.ɒn/ US /ˈaɪ.ɑːn/ specialized离子
  5. electron noun [ C ] UK /iˈlek.trɒn/ US /iˈlek.trɑːn/
    an extremely small piece of matter with a negative electrical charge电子
  6. ionization  noun [ U ] uk usually ionisation UK /ˌaɪ.ə.naɪˈzeɪ.ʃən/ US /ˌaɪ.ə.nəˈzeɪ.ʃən/电离
  7. surge noun [ C ] UK /sɜːdʒ/ US /sɝːdʒ/C1 a sudden and great increase陡增,剧增,急剧上升。     An unexpected surge in electrical power caused the computer to crash.突然出现的电压剧增导致电脑死机。There has been a surge in house prices recently.最近房价猛涨。
    a sudden and great movement forward涌现,奔涌
    At the end of the game, there was a surge of fans onto the field.比赛结束后,大群的球迷涌向比赛场地。A tidal surge (= sudden and great rise in the level of the sea) caused severe flooding in coastal areas.潮水猛涨在沿海地区引发了严重水灾。
    a sudden increase of an emotion(情感的)涌起,翻涌
    She was overwhelmed by a surge of remorse.悔恨一下子涌上了她的心头。

A stumbling block绊脚石
However, there is still a big stumbling block. The laser is no nifty portable: it’s a monster that takes up a whole room. Diels is trying to cut down the size and says that a laser around the size of a small table is in the offing. He plans to test this more manageable system on live thunderclouds next summer.

  1. in the offing: likely to happen soon即将来临的;即将发生的
    With an election in the offing, the prime minister is keen to maintain his popularity.选举在即,首相非常注意保持其声望。
  2. nifty adjective UK /ˈnɪf.ti/ US /ˈnɪf.ti/ informal,  good, pleasing, or effective绝妙的;有吸引力的;利落的
    a nifty piece of work/footwork杰作/干净利落的步法. a nifty little gadget精巧的小器具
  3. stumble verb UK /ˈstʌm.bəl/ US /ˈstʌm.bəl/         stumble verb (WALK)C2 [ I ] to step awkwardly while walking or running and fall or begin to fall绊脚;绊倒。   Running along the beach, she stumbled on a log and fell on the sand.她沿着海滩跑步时绊到一块木头上摔倒了。In the final straight Meyers stumbled, and although he didn’t fall it was enough to lose him first place.迈耶斯在最后的直道绊了一下,虽然没有摔倒,但也足以使他丢掉第一的位置。[ I usually + adv/prep ] to walk in a way that does not seem controlled跌跌撞撞地走,蹒跚而行
    We could hear her stumbling about/around the bedroom in the dark.我们可以听到她摸黑在卧室里磕磕绊绊地走动。He pulled on his clothes and stumbled into the kitchen. 他披上衣服,摇摇晃晃地走进厨房。
    stumble verb (PAUSE)C2 [ I ] to make a mistake, such as repeating something or pausing for too long, while speaking or playing a piece of music犯错;磕磕巴巴地说,支吾;不顺畅地演奏
    When the poet stumbled over a line in the middle of a poem, someone in the audience corrected him.诗人在朗诵一首诗的过程中念错了一句,听众中有人纠正了他。

Bernstein says that Diels’s system is attracting lots of interest from the power companies. But they have not yet come up with the $5 million that EPRI says will be needed to develop a commercial system, by making the lasers yet smaller and cheaper. `I cannot say I have money yet, but I’m working on it,’ says Bernstein. He reckons that the forthcoming field tests will be the turning point — and he’s hoping for good news. Bernstein predicts `an avalanche of interest and support’ if all goes well. He expects to see cloud-zappers eventually costing $50,000 to $100,000 each.

  1. reckon verb UK /ˈrek.ən/ US /ˈrek.ən/
    reckon verb (THINK) B2 [ I ] informal to think or believe想;认为,以为
    I reckon it’s going to rain. 我觉得天要下雨了。
    [ + (that) ] How much do you reckon (that) it’s going to cost?你认为这会花多少钱?
    “Can you fix my car today?” “I reckon not/so (= probably not/probably).”“你能今天把我的汽车修好吗?”“我想不行/大概可以。”
  2. avalanche noun [ C ] UK /ˈæv.əl.ɑːntʃ/ US /ˈæv.əl.æntʃ/
    a large amount of ice, snow, and rock falling quickly down the side of a mountain 雪崩
    too many things that arrive or happen at the same time大量;突然到来的一大批
    We were swamped by an avalanche of letters/phone calls/complaints.大批的来信/电话/投诉让我们疲于应付。

Other scientists could also benefit. With a lightning `switch’ at their fingertips, materials scientists could find out what happens when mighty currents meet matter. Diels also hopes to see the birth of `interactive meteorology‘ — not just forecasting the weather but controlling it. `If we could discharge clouds, we might affect the weather,’ he says.

  1. finger—-fingertip  noun [ C ] UK /ˈfɪŋ.ɡə.tɪp/ US /ˈfɪŋ.ɡɚ.tɪp/: the end of a finger指尖Use your fingertips to gently flatten the pastry.用指尖轻轻地把面团弄平。
    at your fingertips:  C2 If you have information at your fingertips, you can get it and use it very easily. 近在手边;很容易得到;随时可供使用
    He has all the latest statistics at his fingertips.他手边有所有最新的数据。
  2. mighty adjective UK /ˈmaɪ.ti/ US /ˈmaɪ.t̬i/ literary,   C2 very large, powerful, or important  强大的;巨大的;伟大的
    In the next game they will face the mighty Patriots.下一场比赛中他们将迎战实力强大的爱国者队。the mighty River Po 滔滔的波河
  3. current noun [ C ] UK /ˈkʌr.ənt/ US /ˈkɝː.ənt/
    current noun [ C ] (FLOW) a movement of water, air, or electricity in a particular direction水流;气流;电流
    to swim against/with the current逆流/顺流而游He was swept out to sea by the strong current.他被急流冲到了海里。Switch off the electric current before changing the bulb. 换灯泡前先把电源切断。
  4. matter noun (SUBSTANCE) [ U ] physical substance in the universe物质
    Some scientists believe that there is about ten times as much matter in the universe as astronomers have observed.有些科学家认为,宇宙中的物质约有天文学家所观测到的10倍之多。

And perhaps, says Diels, we’ll be able to confront some other meteorological menaces. `We think we could prevent hail by inducing诱发 lightning,’ he says. Thunder, the shock wave that comes from a lightning flash, is thought to be the trigger for the torrential rain that is typical of storms. A laser thunder factory could shake the moisture out of clouds, perhaps preventing the formation of the giant hailstones冰雹 that threaten crops. With luck, as the storm clouds gather this winter, laser-toting researchers could, for the first time, strike back.

  1. moist adj. 潮湿的—-moisten v. /ˈmɔɪ.sən/ 弄湿,沾湿;(使)变潮湿—- moisture
    noun [ U ] UK /ˈmɔɪs.tʃər/ US /ˈmɔɪs.tʃɚ/a liquid such as water in the form of very small drops, either in the air, in a substance, or on a surface潮气,湿气;水分
    These plants need a rich soil that retains moisture.这些植物需要一种能保持水分、养分充足的土壤。
  2. torrential adjective UK /təˈren.ʃəl/ US /tɔːˈren.ʃəl/C2 used to refer to very heavy rain(雨)倾泻似的,如注的
    torrential rain倾盆大雨.  a torrential downpour/storm如注的大雨/暴风雨
  3. reduce v.减少—-induceinduce verb UK /ɪnˈdʒuːs/ US /ɪnˈduːs/ formal
    induce verb (PERSUADE)[ T + obj + to infinitive ] to persuade someone to do something诱使;劝说
    They induced her to take the job by promising editorial freedom.他们向她保证有编辑自由,以劝服她接受这项工作。Nothing could induce me (= I definitely cannot be persuaded) to climb a mountain/ride a bike.没有什么能诱使我去爬山/骑自行车的。
    induce verb (CAUSE) [ T ] to cause something to happen导致
    Pills for seasickness often induce drowsiness.晕船药经常会令人昏昏欲睡。
    [ T ] to use a drug to make a pregnant woman start giving birth催生;引产
    In this hospital, twins are often induced.在这家医院生育双胞胎常常要引产的。
  4. confront verb [ T ] UK /kənˈfrʌnt/ US /kənˈfrʌnt/ C2 to face, meet, or deal with a difficult situation or person面对,面临;遭遇;直面,正视
    As she left the court, she was confronted by angry crowds who tried to block her way.她离开法庭时,愤怒的人群试图拦住她的去路。It’s an issue we’ll have to confront at some point, no matter how unpleasant it is. 不管它有多讨厌,我们终究要面对这个问题。I thought I would stay calm, but when I was confronted with/by the TV camera, I got very nervous. 我以为我会保持镇静,可是面对电视镜头,我却变得紧张万分。
  5. menace noun UK /ˈmen.ɪs/ US /ˈmen.əs/ [ C usually singular ] something that is likely to cause harm危险的事物;造成威胁的事物
    Drunk drivers are a menace to everyone.醉酒驾驶者对每个人都构成了威胁。Dogs running loose are a public menace.没有拴起来到处乱跑的狗对公众安全是一种威胁。
    the menace of industrial pollution工业污染的危害
    [ U ] a dangerous quality that makes you think someone is going to do something bad威胁;威吓
    He had a slight air of menace which made me uneasy.他略带威胁的样子使我感到不安。He spoke with a hint of menace. 他的话语中透着一丝威胁。
  6. hail noun UK /heɪl/ US /heɪl/ C2 [ U ] small, hard balls of ice that fall from the sky like rain雹,冰雹








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